## Deterministic Delay Bounds for VBR Video in Packet-Switching Networks: Fundamental Limits and Practical Tradeoffs (1996)

### Cached

### Download Links

Venue: | IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking |

Citations: | 109 - 27 self |

### BibTeX

@ARTICLE{Wrege96deterministicdelay,

author = {Dallas E. Wrege and Edward W. Knightly and Hui Zhang and Jörg Liebeherr},

title = {Deterministic Delay Bounds for VBR Video in Packet-Switching Networks: Fundamental Limits and Practical Tradeoffs},

journal = {IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking},

year = {1996},

volume = {4},

pages = {352--362}

}

### Years of Citing Articles

### OpenURL

### Abstract

Compressed digital video is one of the most important traffic types in future integrated services networks. However, a network service that supports delay-sensitive video imposes many problems since compressed video sources are variable bit rate (VBR) with a high degree of burstiness. In this paper, we consider a network service that can provide deterministic guarantees on the minimum throughput and the maximum delay of VBR video traffic. A common belief is that due to the burstiness of VBR traffic, such a service will not be efficient and will necessarily result in low network utilization. We investigate the fundamental limits and tradeoffs in providing deterministic performance guarantees to video and use a set of 10 to 30 minute long MPEG-compressed video traces for evaluation. Contrary to conventional wisdom, we are able to show that, in many cases, a deterministic service can be provided to video traffic while maintaining a reasonable level of network utilization. We first conside...

### Citations

635 | A scheme for real-time channel establishment in wide-area networks
- Ferrari, Verma
- 1990
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...<dq for p<q. SP schedulers maintain one FCFS queue for each priority level, always selecting the rst packet in the highestpriority FCFS queue for transmission. With Earliest-Deadline-First scheduling =-=[4]-=-, each connection j 2N is assigned a delay bound dj, where the delay bound may be di erent for each connection. An EDF scheduler selects packets for transmission in increasing order of packet deadline... |

604 | MPEG: A video compression standard for multimedia applications
- Legall
- 1991
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...re coded based on both a past and a future reference frame. Thus, I frames exploit spatial locality, while P and B frames exploit temporal locality. More details of the MPEG algorithm may be found in =-=[6]-=-. The behavior of the coder is clearly visible from the dynamics of the trace. Speci cally, the frame pattern (in this case IBBPBB) can be seen since the I frames tend to be the largest, B the smalles... |

557 |
A calculus for network delay, part I: Network elements in isolation
- Cruz
- 1991
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...deo frame divided by theinter-frame time.several recent works show that this conventional wisdom is not correct and that peak-rate allocation is not required even for providing deterministic service =-=[2, 8,9,17]-=-. In this study, we analyze the fundamental limits in providing deterministic performance guarantees to VBR video. Such a study has become feasible with a set of recently developed tight, i.e., necess... |

219 |
New Directions in Communications (or Which Way to the Information Ap
- Turner
- 1986
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...that a tra c model with a piece-wise linear concave trac constraint function can be policed by a xed number of leaky buckets. Since a leaky bucket can be implemented with a counter and a single timer =-=[15]-=-, concavity of the (~ � ~) model's tra c constraint functions ensures a simple implementation of the tra c policer. 2.2 Packet Scheduling In a connection-oriented packet-switched network, packets from... |

207 |
Gigabit Networking
- Partridge
- 1993
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...cumulation of the local delay bounds investigated below. While there is not a consensus on the exact range of acceptable delay bounds for interactive applications, some discussion of this is found in =-=[12]-=-. In our experiments, we use traces of two MPEG-1 compressed video sequences that were encoded with constant quality using the Berkeley MPEG-encoder [13]. The rst trace is a 30-minute sequence taken f... |

155 | Exact Admission Control in Networks with Bounded Delay Services
- Liebeherr, Wrege, et al.
- 1994
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...as complexity O(PN)� and the test SP Su cient 2 has complexity O(P ). If the constraint function is based on a parameterized tra c model rather than E , these complexities may be considerably reduced =-=[9]-=-. Number of Movie Connections 60 50 40 30 20 10 52% 34.7% 59.0% SP Exact SP Sufficient 1 SP Sufficient 2 49.9% 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Number of Lecture Connections Figure 8: A comparison of admis... |

154 |
Traffic Modeling for Telecommunications Networks
- Frost, Melamed
- 1994
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... the dynamics of the source. A rich set of literature exists on characterizing VBR video tra c by astochastic process using models such asMarkov-modulated, Auto Regressive, TES, and Self-similar (see =-=[5, 10]-=- and the references therein). While such stochastic models of a source have the advantage that they may beusedtopotentially achieve highernetwork utilization by exploiting the statistical properties o... |

141 | Rate-controlled service disciplines
- Zhang, Ferrari
- 1994
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ach consecutive hop. An end-to-end delay bound can then be calculated by summing the local, per-hop delay bounds. Second, for a class of service disciplines called rate-controlled service disciplines =-=[18]-=-, e.g., Rate-Controlled Static Priority [16] and a rate-controlled variation of EDF [4], a stream's original constraint function A (t) is restored at each hop along the path via a rate controller. Thi... |

99 |
Performance of a software MPEG video decoder
- Patel, Smith, et al.
- 1993
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...lications, some discussion of this is found in [12]. In our experiments, we use traces of two MPEG-1 compressed video sequences that were encoded with constant quality using the Berkeley MPEG-encoder =-=[13]-=-. The rst trace is a 30-minute sequence taken from the entertainment lm \Jurassic Park" which we refer to as Movie. Movie is digitized to 384 by 288 pixels and compressed at 24 frames per second with ... |

96 | Tra c characterization and switch utilization using deterministic bounding interval dependent tra c models
- Knightly, Zhang
- 1995
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...lex for practical implementation [10]. Finally, since stochastic approaches to VBR tra c characterization provide only statistical guarantees, they cannot be applied to deterministic network services =-=[8, 9,17]-=-. For such reasons, in this work we consider only deterministic tra c models that characterize VBR tra c in terms of a worst-case description. It is a common belief that such aworst-case approach nece... |

88 | Rate-Controlled StaticPriority Queueing
- Zhang, Ferrari
- 1993
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...er for a set N of connections: First-ComeFirst-Served (FCFS), Static Priority (SP), and EarliestDeadline-First (EDF). Each of these disciplines has been investigated for use in bounded delay services =-=[2, 4,9,16]-=-. First-Come-First-Served schedulers transmit all packets in the order of their arrival. Since the maximum delay ina FCFS scheduler is the same for all connections j 2N, all connections have an identi... |

66 |
A generalized processor sharing approach to ‡ow control inintegrated services networks: the single-node case
- Parekh, Gallager
- 1993
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...t) is restored at each hop along the path via a rate controller. This prevents the tra c constraint function from becoming \burstier" as the stream traverses multiple hops, as occurs in [3]. Finally, =-=[11]-=- utilizes properties speci c to the Generalized Processor Sharing (GPS) service discipline, which allows the derivation of tight end-to-end delay bounds for networks of GPS servers with leaky bucket c... |

57 | Improving Utilization for Deterministic Service in Multimedia Communication
- Zhang, Ferrari
- 1994
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...lex for practical implementation [10]. Finally, since stochastic approaches to VBR tra c characterization provide only statistical guarantees, they cannot be applied to deterministic network services =-=[8, 9,17]-=-. For such reasons, in this work we consider only deterministic tra c models that characterize VBR tra c in terms of a worst-case description. It is a common belief that such aworst-case approach nece... |

37 | Joint Scheduling and Admission Control for ATS-based Switching Nodes
- Hyman, Lazar, et al.
- 1992
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...nteed delay bound. Such a service requires admission control tests to determine if the network has su cient resources to support a new connection without degrading the service of existing connections =-=[4, 7]-=-. The tests for a new connection are based on acharacterization of the expected tra c for the new connection. If accepting or admitting the new connection may result in violations of service guarantee... |

33 | Statistical properties of MPEG video tra c and their impact on tra c modeling in ATM systems - Rose - 1995 |

3 |
Onvural, `A Bibliography onPerformance Issues in ATM Networks
- Nikolaidis, O
- 1992
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... the dynamics of the source. A rich set of literature exists on characterizing VBR video tra c by astochastic process using models such asMarkov-modulated, Auto Regressive, TES, and Self-similar (see =-=[5, 10]-=- and the references therein). While such stochastic models of a source have the advantage that they may beusedtopotentially achieve highernetwork utilization by exploiting the statistical properties o... |

2 | and the M.S. degree from the University of California, Berkeley, in 1992, hoti in electrical engineering. He expects to receive the Ph.D. from the - University, AL - 1991 |

1 | queue Iengtb, and delay of deterministic and smchastic queueing networks - Chang, “Stability - 1994 |

1 | A calcuhrs for network delay. Part 1: Ne~work elements in isolation - Cruz - 1991 |

1 | for network delay, Part 11:Network analysis - “’Acalculus - 1991 |

1 | A wheme for real-time channel cstablishmen{ in wide-area networks - Ferrari, Verma - 1990 |

1 | Traffic modeling for telecommunications ne(works - Frost, Melamed - 1994 |

1 | A bibliography on performance iswe~ in ATM networks - Nikolaidis, Onvural - 1992 |

1 | A generalized prtreessor sharing approach to flow control in integrated services networks: The multiple node case - Parekb, Gallager - 1993 |

1 | Gi,@if Ne(workin,c - Partridge - 1994 |

1 | Wrege (S’9 1) received the B.A. degree in applied mathematics from - Dallas - 1992 |

1 | Hui Zhang (M’95–ACM94) received the B.S. degree in computer science from - NO - 1996 |

1 |
queue length, and delay ofdeterministic and stochastic queueing networks
- Stability
- 1994
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...tion A such thatA[ � + t] denotes the tra c arrivals in the time interval [ � +t], an upper bound on A can be given by a function A if for all times 0 and all interval lengths t 0 the following holds =-=[1, 2]-=-: A[ � + t] A (t) (1) We refer to a function A (t) that satis es the property in (1) as a tra c constraint function. Note that a tra c constraint function provides a time-invariant bound on A, so that... |