## Robust Image Transmission using Resynchronizing Variable-Length Codes and Error Concealment (1999)

Venue: | IEEE JOURNAL ON SELECTED AREAS OF COMMUNICATIONS |

Citations: | 10 - 1 self |

### BibTeX

@ARTICLE{Hemami99robustimage,

author = {Sheila S. Hemami},

title = {Robust Image Transmission using Resynchronizing Variable-Length Codes and Error Concealment},

journal = {IEEE JOURNAL ON SELECTED AREAS OF COMMUNICATIONS},

year = {1999},

volume = {18},

pages = {927--939}

}

### Years of Citing Articles

### OpenURL

### Abstract

Resynchronizing variable-length codes (RVLCs) for large alphabets are designed by first creating resynchronizing Huffman codes and then adding an extended synchronizing codeword, and the RVLCs are applied to both JPEG and wavelet-based image compression. The RVLCs demonstrate the desired resynchronization properties, both at a symbol level and structurally so that decoded data can be correctly placed within an image following errors. The encoded images, when subject to both structural and statistical error detection and concealment, can tolerate BERs of up to and are very tolerant of burst errors. The RVLC-JPEG images have negligible overhead at visually lossless bit rates, while the RVLC-wavelet overhead can be adjusted based on the desired tolerance to burst errors and typically ranges from 7-18%. The tolerance to both bit and burst errors demonstrates that images coded with such RVLCs can be transmitted over imperfect channels suffering bit errors or packet losses without channel co...

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Citation Context ... at the expense of slight non-optimality of the resulting codes. The RHCs contain a synchronizing codeword and are designed using an algorithm given in [6]. While later works study properties of RHCs =-=[7, 8, 9]-=-, they omit references to [6], which is the only study which provides a general design algorithm. Previous applications of optimal resynchronizing VLCs have been limited to sources with alphabets of s... |

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Citation Context ...ions of optimal resynchronizing VLCs have been limited to sources with alphabets of sizes less than 30 [6, 7], while only non-optimal VLCs with ad-hoc marker codewords have been applied to image data =-=[10]-=-. While many of the Huffman codes possible for a given set of codeword lengths may contain a synchronizing codeword, the design algorithm used produces the Huffman code with the shortest synchronizing... |

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Citation Context ... at the expense of slight non-optimality of the resulting codes. The RHCs contain a synchronizing codeword and are designed using an algorithm given in [6]. While later works study properties of RHCs =-=[7, 8, 9]-=-, they omit references to [6], which is the only study which provides a general design algorithm. Previous applications of optimal resynchronizing VLCs have been limited to sources with alphabets of s... |

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Citation Context ...it errors. The RHC can therefore be modified include an extended synchronizing codeword (ESC), which is a codeword containing a unique bit pattern that cannot appear in any concatenation of codewords =-=[14]. As -=-such, it serves as a marker in the bitstream. In particular, an ESC is obtained by extending the all-1’s codeword as described in [14]. Let σ be the length of the all-1’s codeword in a RHC and le... |

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Citation Context ...cluding an extended synchronizing codeword (ESC) at the expense of slight non-optimality of the resulting codes. The RHCs contain a synchronizing codeword and are designed using an algorithm given in =-=[6]-=-. While later works study properties of RHCs [7, 8, 9], they omit references to [6], which is the only study which provides a general design algorithm. Previous applications of optimal resynchronizing... |

2 |
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Citation Context ...locks of known sizes such that each block starts at a known position within the code, and the decoder is automatically synchronized at the start of each block [4]. An alternative approach is given in =-=[5]-=- in which the VLC codewords are symmetric, and the resulting encoded stream can be decoded both forward and backward (at a bit level) from known locations to maximize the amount of decoded data; these... |

1 |
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Citation Context ...nd a reduction in the required overhead for reliable transmission. Previous work in detecting and correcting VLC bitstream errors has included both bitstream- and image-level approaches. Both [1] and =-=[2]-=- employ frequent restart markers in the bitstream to limit error propagation in JPEG transmission applications. In [1], candidate locations for errors in the VLC bitstream are identified using decoded... |

1 |
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Citation Context ...rror requires exhaustive enumeration of bit error effects at all non-terminal nodes in the tree and even a simplified approximation of the expected time is quite complex for small alphabets (e.g., 5) =-=[13]-=-. In the imaging applications considered here, there are typically tens or hundreds of codewords and non-terminal nodes in the tree. Since synchronization for the RHCs occurs with probability 1 when t... |