## Diagrammatic Representations in Domain-Specific Languages (2000)

Citations: | 1 - 1 self |

### BibTeX

@TECHREPORT{Tourlas00diagrammaticrepresentations,

author = {Konstantinos Tourlas},

title = {Diagrammatic Representations in Domain-Specific Languages},

institution = {},

year = {2000}

}

### OpenURL

### Abstract

One emerging approach to reducing the labour and costs of software development favours the specialisation of techniques to particular application domains. The rationale is that programs within a given domain often share enough common features and assumptions to enable the incorporation of substantial support mechanisms into domain-specific programming languages and associated tools. Instead of being machine-oriented, algorithmic implementations, programs in many domain-specific languages (DSLs) are rather user-level, problem-oriented specifications of solutions. Taken further, this view suggests that the most appropriate representation of programs in many domains is diagrammatic, in a way which derives from existing design notations in the domain. This thesis conducts an investigation, using mathematical techniques and supported by case studies, of issues arising from the use of diagrammatic representations in DSLs. Its structure is conceptually divided into two parts: the first is co...

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Citation Context ...is unsatisfactory situation, a number of so-called synchronous languages were developed in the 1980's, the most prominent among which being Esterel [16, 14], Lustre [57, 20], Signal [38], Statecharts =-=[62] and -=-Argos [91]. The design of synchronous languages rests on the idealisation, called the synchrony hypothesis [10, 89], that each reaction of the system is instantaneous. Any reference to "real time... |

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Citation Context ..., in the context of particular reasoning tasks. Furthermore, it has been demonstrated in [43, 110, 112] that pragmatic features of diagrammatic representations (termed "secondary notations "=-= by Green [42]-=-) play a significant role in achieving such matching. Earlier work at Edinburgh [47], informed by these previous analyses and the results of psychological studies of individual di#erences in users res... |

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Citation Context ...e specifications will be expressions denoting arrows in a (suitably chosen) tensor category. 6.3.1 Diagrams of arrows in tensor categories A remarkable recent development has been the introduction in =-=[74]-=- (and also [75]) of an intuitive diagrammatic representation for expressions denoting arrows in a variety of tensor categories. The resulting diagrams are modelled in terms of topological graphs, that... |

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Citation Context ... became extremely hard to predict. In reaction to this unsatisfactory situation, a number of so-called synchronous languages were developed in the 1980's, the most prominent among which being Esterel =-=[16, 14]-=-, Lustre [57, 20], Signal [38], Statecharts [62] and Argos [91]. The design of synchronous languages rests on the idealisation, called the synchrony hypothesis [10, 89], that each reaction of the syst... |

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Citation Context ...ts of the approach employ the host language to construct standalone, modular interpreters for DSLs. There appears to be some friction between the objectives of interpreter modularity and optimisation =-=[71]-=- and a variety of technologies (including staging, monads [122] and partial evaluation [71]) are currently being evaluated. The other popular approach regards programs in a DSL as a family, i.e. a cla... |

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Citation Context ...so be useful, so we provide a brief and simplified review of the basic concepts. 1 Three texts which the author recommends as particularly gentle, pleasing-to-read introductions to sets and logic are =-=[44, 133, 59]-=- 14 1.5.1 Algebras, signatures and terms A multi-sorted algebra is a collection A of sets, called the carriers, together with functions of the form f : A 1 . . . A n # Am (where A k # A), called opera... |

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Citation Context ...g over R seriously impedes the practical application of the theory to the verification of real-life systems. In response, techniques based on Q (the set of rational numbers) as an approximation (e.g. =-=[58]-=-) have been developed. 2.1.2 The synchronous approach to embedded control In contrast to the general situation, the theory of embedded control software exhibits remarkable simplicity and has achieved ... |

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Citation Context ...its "dual" A # . Thus, what we have called "unitcounit pairs" correspond to the components of the unit and counit (di)natural transformations ([88], page 214) of a self-dual, compa=-=ct-closed structure [81]-=- on a symmetric monoidal category. Self-duality in this context means A # = A for all objects A in the category. There is a standard way in which unit-counit pairs equip a symmetric tensor category wi... |

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Citation Context ...[114] which are targeted specifically for audiences in computer science. Shorter introductions, together with further pointers to the numerous applications of categories in computing, are provided in =-=[115, 40, 119, 26]-=-. The definitive text on category theory is MacLane's book [88]. 5.1 Graphs A graph consists of a set of objects O (vertices), a set of arrows A (edges) and a pair of functions # 0 , # 1 : A # O, call... |

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Citation Context ...[114] which are targeted specifically for audiences in computer science. Shorter introductions, together with further pointers to the numerous applications of categories in computing, are provided in =-=[115, 40, 119, 26]-=-. The definitive text on category theory is MacLane's book [88]. 5.1 Graphs A graph consists of a set of objects O (vertices), a set of arrows A (edges) and a pair of functions # 0 , # 1 : A # O, call... |

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Citation Context ...tems have been extended in various ways. The two most popular approaches consist in the specification of temporal bounds (minimal and maximal delays) on transitions to obtain timed transition systems =-=[66, 67], and the -=-introduction of 18 "clocks" (i.e. variables recording the passage of time) to obtain timed automata [1, 2]. In spite of recent progress, the current mathematical theory of real-time software... |

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Citation Context ... to semantics. 1.3.3 Summary On the whole, recent research on domain-specific languages has focused almost exclusively on textual languages and domains within mainstream computing (e.g. web computing =-=[18] and netwo-=-rking [137]). In such domains, language specificity manifests itself primarily as "special [textual] syntax, operations and types" [77]. We wish to argue that, in general, the understanding ... |

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Citation Context ...f : X# A -# B ## X and g : B # -# B 6. Sliding: Tr X A,B (f ; (1 B# g)) = Tr Y A,B ((1 A# g); f) where f : X# A -# Y# B and g : Y -# X. Remark. The above axiomatisation of traces in due to Hasegawa [=-=63, 64]-=- and is a specialised application of the general definition in [75] which applies to a wide class of tortile tensor categories [126]. 93 5.6.3 Units and counits Beyond symmetries, symmetric tensor cat... |

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Citation Context ...g some of their objects and arrows. In particular, variants of pushout constructions have been used extensively as algebraic tools in the theory of graph transformations and graph grammars (see, e.g. =-=[28, 24]-=-). Here we present the details of the pushout construction in Graph, which is induced by amalgams of sets. Definition 5.7. Let G = (O, A, # 0 , # 1 ), G # = (O # , A # , # # 0 , # # 1 ) be graphs and ... |

45 | Recursion from cyclic sharing: traced monoidal categories and models of cyclic lambda-calculi
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Citation Context ... been shown to be instances of traces. These include feedback in the calculus of "flownomials" [127], feedback in asynchronous data-flow networks [68] and circuits [80], recursion from cycli=-=c sharing [64], and-=- reflection in action calculi [101] among many others. Our interest in traces stems from the fact that their axioms neatly capture a particular notion of equivalence between diagrams containing "... |

44 |
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(Show Context)
Citation Context ... In reaction to this unsatisfactory situation, a number of so-called synchronous languages were developed in the 1980's, the most prominent among which being Esterel [16, 14], Lustre [57, 20], Signal =-=[38]-=-, Statecharts [62] and Argos [91]. The design of synchronous languages rests on the idealisation, called the synchrony hypothesis [10, 89], that each reaction of the system is instantaneous. Any refer... |

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Citation Context ...tems have been extended in various ways. The two most popular approaches consist in the specification of temporal bounds (minimal and maximal delays) on transitions to obtain timed transition systems =-=[66, 67], and the -=-introduction of 18 "clocks" (i.e. variables recording the passage of time) to obtain timed automata [1, 2]. In spite of recent progress, the current mathematical theory of real-time software... |

42 | Bicategories of processes
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(Show Context)
Citation Context ...and general recursion operators have been shown to be instances of traces. These include feedback in the calculus of "flownomials" [127], feedback in asynchronous data-flow networks [68] and=-= circuits [80]-=-, recursion from cyclic sharing [64], and reflection in action calculi [101] among many others. Our interest in traces stems from the fact that their axioms neatly capture a particular notion of equiv... |

39 |
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Citation Context ...rovide a syntactic description of nets which gives places and transitions equal status (as in Definition 7.1). 137 Nevertheless, the idea of concatenable metagraphs owes its very existence to work in =-=[27, 120] extending-=- the basic theory of net computations. There, a notion of "concatenable process" was introduced for nets. Suitably adapted, this inspired our Definition 7.5 of concatenable metagraphs. Anoth... |

39 | Incorporating application semantics and control into compilation
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(Show Context)
Citation Context ...roach regards programs in a DSL as a family, i.e. a class of programs characterised by a large number of common features. The idea is to incorporate application semantics into the compilation process =-=[32]-=- by applying a range commonality analysis techniques. Due to the costs associated with 11 compiler design and implementation, which are often disproportionally high to the size of typical DSLs, interp... |

37 |
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Citation Context ...f domain engineering address the issue of identifying or creating reusable assets within a problem domain following thorough analysis of commonalities and variability among specific problem instances =-=[7]-=-. In this respect, requirements for a domain-specific language may be seen as a possible product of domain engineering. The SDA (standing for Software Design Automation) methodology, proposed by Hook ... |

37 |
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(Show Context)
Citation Context ...n for our interest in embedded control is twofold: . One of the first, principled and highly convincing arguments for the need to design and employ domain-specific languages originated in this domain =-=[13]-=-. . Most languages specific to the domain are naturally diagrammatic or admit both diagrammatic and textual representations of programs in order to cater for the needs of human users and system tools ... |

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(Show Context)
Citation Context ...f user-defined semantic e#ects via monad transformations [87].) When an adequate semantic match exists, the results can be highly satisfactory as demonstrated by case studies in 3D graphics animation =-=[29, 30], picture--=-drawing [78] and "geometric region servers" [19]. More recently, variants of the approach employ the host language to construct standalone, modular interpreters for DSLs. There appears to be... |

30 |
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(Show Context)
Citation Context ...is [10, 89], that each reaction of the system is instantaneous. Any reference to "real time" within synchronous programs may then be eliminated, resulting in the development of simple semant=-=ic models [12, 15, 92, 21]-=-. 19 bin_empty (sensor) truck_on_ramp (sensor) bin_valve TRUCK BIN BELT CONTROL PANEL sw load run Figure 2.1: A gravel dump site. Labels having arrows pointing towards them represent inputs to the PLC... |

28 |
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(Show Context)
Citation Context ...so be useful, so we provide a brief and simplified review of the basic concepts. 1 Three texts which the author recommends as particularly gentle, pleasing-to-read introductions to sets and logic are =-=[44, 133, 59]-=- 14 1.5.1 Algebras, signatures and terms A multi-sorted algebra is a collection A of sets, called the carriers, together with functions of the form f : A 1 . . . A n # Am (where A k # A), called opera... |

27 | A relational model of non-deterministic dataflow
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- 2004
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...eration, feedback and general recursion operators have been shown to be instances of traces. These include feedback in the calculus of "flownomials" [127], feedback in asynchronous data-flow=-= networks [68]-=- and circuits [80], recursion from cyclic sharing [64], and reflection in action calculi [101] among many others. Our interest in traces stems from the fact that their axioms neatly capture a particul... |

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(Show Context)
Citation Context ... this is the potential to directly capture pertinent aspects of the represented artifact (whether this be a concrete artifact or some abstract concept). To clarify this argument, which is explored in =-=[50, 47], we must explain wh-=-at is meant here by the terms "direct" and "pertinent". Firstly, diagrammatic relations can often be directly semantically interpreted. This is to say that certain diagrammatic rel... |

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(Show Context)
Citation Context ...of assignments to the output labels with references to the input labels and the outputs of block instances (in the form INSTANCE.OUTPUT). In essence, function blocks are simple, synchronous data-flow =-=[11]-=- programs specifying the outputs as functions of the inputs. In general, the function computed may be dependent on the history of its own computation. History dependencies are introduced by means of f... |

16 |
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Citation Context ...ith this particular class of diagrams. Example 6.2. From left to right, the diagrams in Figure 6.4 correspond to the expressions: 1. f ; (1# h) ; (g# 1) ; k 2. f ; (g# h) ; k and 2 A homeomorphic map =-=[134, 31]-=- is an isomorphism of topological spaces. 104 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . # # # # # # f g h k # # # # # # # # f g h k . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . # # # # # ... |

15 | What makes a good Domain-Specific Language? APOSTLE, and its Approach to Parallel Discrete Event Simulation
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(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ruction of interpreters using techniques borrowed from general-purpose languages). Whereas it is widely agreed that a good DSL must capture the native notation and semantics of its application domain =-=[17, 70], the range of langu-=-ages studied thus far has led to a particularly narrow perception of both "notation" and "semantics". By emphasising industrial (engineering) domains and diagrammatic representatio... |

14 |
A denotational theory of synchronous reactive systems
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- 1992
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...is [10, 89], that each reaction of the system is instantaneous. Any reference to "real time" within synchronous programs may then be eliminated, resulting in the development of simple semant=-=ic models [12, 15, 92, 21]-=-. 19 bin_empty (sensor) truck_on_ramp (sensor) bin_valve TRUCK BIN BELT CONTROL PANEL sw load run Figure 2.1: A gravel dump site. Labels having arrows pointing towards them represent inputs to the PLC... |

14 | Towards the principled design of software engineering diagrams
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- 2000
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...th the exception of the material in Chapter 6 which is the product of joint work with Dr Corin A. Gurr 1 . Early versions of parts of this thesis have already been published elsewhere: . Chapter 3 as =-=[49]-=- (sections 3.4 and 3.5) and [5, 6] (rest of chapter) . Chapter 4 as [4]; and . Chapter 6 as [48]. Konstantinos Tourlas 1 Corin Gurr is a member of the Human Communication Research Centre (HCRC) at the... |

13 |
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(Show Context)
Citation Context ...nly when issues of termination or complexity are discussed. Even then, either a qualitative account of time passage su#ces [65], or the semantic model is explicitly augmented with complexity measures =-=[53]-=-. On the other hand, the modelling of reactive programs is typically operational in style, relying on transition systems to provide a mathematical abstraction of their behaviour [90]. A transition sys... |

12 |
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(Show Context)
Citation Context ...l programming languages [121]. In this framework, reference to time is made only when issues of termination or complexity are discussed. Even then, either a qualitative account of time passage su#ces =-=[65]-=-, or the semantic model is explicitly augmented with complexity measures [53]. On the other hand, the modelling of reactive programs is typically operational in style, relying on transition systems to... |