## Superharmonic Injection-Locked Frequency Dividers (1999)

Venue: | IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits |

Citations: | 28 - 1 self |

### BibTeX

@ARTICLE{Rategh99superharmonicinjection-locked,

author = {Hamid R. Rategh and Student Member and Thomas H. Lee},

title = {Superharmonic Injection-Locked Frequency Dividers},

journal = {IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits},

year = {1999},

volume = {34},

pages = {813--821}

}

### Years of Citing Articles

### OpenURL

### Abstract

Injection-locked oscillators (ILO's) are investigated in a new theoretical approach. A first-order differential equation is derived for the noise dynamics of ILO's. A single-ended injection-locked frequency divider (SILFD) is designed in a 0.5-µm CMOS technology operating at 1.8 GHz with more than 190 MHz locking range while consuming 3 mW of power. A differential injection-locked frequency divider (DILFD) is designed in a 0.5-µm CMOS technology operating at 3 GHz and consuming 0.45 mW, with a 190 MHz locking range. A locking range of 370 MHz is achieved for the DILFD when the power consumption is increased to 1.2 mW.

### Citations

105 | On-chip spiral inductors with patterned ground shields for Si based RF ICs
- Yue, Wong
- 1998
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...current of 1.2 mA. The free-running frequency of oscillation is 920 MHz, and the incident frequency is around 1840 MHz. Both inductors are on-chip spiral inductors with patterned ground shields [18], =-=[19]-=-. The die micrograph of the SILFD is shown in Fig. 9. The total area of the die is 0.7 mm (0.7 1mm). The oscillation amplitude of the SILFD is plotted in Fig. 10 as a function of the incident frequenc... |

62 |
A study of locking phenomena in oscillators
- Adler
- 1946
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...lators (ILO’s) may be defined: first-harmonic, subharmonic, and superharmonic ILO’s. In a first-harmonic ILO, the oscillation frequency is the same as the fundamental frequency of the incident sig=-=nal [1]-=-, while in a subharmonic ILO, the incident frequency is a subharmonic of the oscillation frequency [4], [9], [14], [20]. Likewise, in a superharmonic ILO, the incident frequency is a harmonic of the o... |

34 |
A physical model for planar spiral inductors on silicon
- Yue, Ryu, et al.
- 1996
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... bias current of 1.2 mA. The free-running frequency of oscillation is 920 MHz, and the incident frequency is around 1840 MHz. Both inductors are on-chip spiral inductors with patterned ground shields =-=[18]-=-, [19]. The die micrograph of the SILFD is shown in Fig. 9. The total area of the die is 0.7 mm (0.7 1mm). The oscillation amplitude of the SILFD is plotted in Fig. 10 as a function of the incident fr... |

28 |
Microwave Solid State Circuit Design
- Bahl, Bhartia
- 1988
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...lt, regenerative frequency dividers are not the best solution for low-power systems. Parametric frequency dividers [Fig. 1(b)] are another group of analog frequency dividers used in microwave systems =-=[3]-=-, [5], [15]. The frequency division principle of a parametric frequency divider relies on exciting a varactor at frequency and realizing a negative resistance that sustains a loop gain of unity at . H... |

21 |
A 27-mW CMOS fractional-N synthesizer using digital compensation for 2.5-Mb/s GFSK modulation
- Perrott, Tewksbury, et al.
- 1997
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...and their power consumption increases with the frequency of operation. In frequency synthesizers used in modern wireless systems, frequency dividers consume a large percentage of the total power [2], =-=[8]. -=-Most often, offchip frequency dividers are used as the first stage in a stack of dividers in high-frequency PLL’s [8]. The limitation on power and maximum frequency of operation of conventional digi... |

6 |
A 2-GHz, 6-mW BiCMOS frequency synthesizer
- Aytur, Razavi
- 1995
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...band and their power consumption increases with the frequency of operation. In frequency synthesizers used in modern wireless systems, frequency dividers consume a large percentage of the total power =-=[2], -=-[8]. Most often, offchip frequency dividers are used as the first stage in a stack of dividers in high-frequency PLL’s [8]. The limitation on power and maximum frequency of operation of conventional... |

5 | A 5 GHz, 32 mW CMOS frequency synthesizer with an injection-locked frequency divider,” presented at the Dig
- Rategh, Samavati, et al.
- 1999
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...s not change as the incident frequency changes. However, to achieve a larger tuning range, the free-running oscillation frequency of the ILO can be modified such that it tracks the incident frequency =-=[11], -=-[12]. III. NOISE IN ILO’s To investigate the phase noise performance of an ILO, we first consider the response of a first-harmonic ILO to a deterministic sinusoidal noise. For convenience, the model... |

4 | Theory of Regenerative Frequency Dividers Using Double Balanced Mixers - Harrison - 1989 |

4 |
The synchronous oscillator: a synchronization and tracking network
- Uzunoglu, White
- 1985
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...requency is a subharmonic of the oscillation frequency [4], [9], [14], [20]. Likewise, in a superharmonic ILO, the incident frequency is a harmonic of the oscillation frequency. Uzunoglu et al. [16], =-=[17] use-=-d synchronous oscillators (SO’s) as frequency dividers, without providing a physical model for the frequency division functionality of SO’s. The SO proposed in [17] is a nonlinear oscillator with ... |

3 |
Phase noise performance of analog frequency dividers
- Driscoll
- 1990
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...d analog frequency dividers may be used to reduce power and increase the maximum frequency of operation. Regenerative frequency dividers [Fig. 1(a)] are the most widely used analog frequency dividers =-=[5]��-=-�[7]. Frequency division in such a divider results from combining frequency multiplication in the feedback path with mixing at the input. Regenerative dividers can operate at frequencies higher than f... |

3 |
Frequency Synthesizers: Theory and Design
- Manassewitch
- 1987
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...alog frequency dividers may be used to reduce power and increase the maximum frequency of operation. Regenerative frequency dividers [Fig. 1(a)] are the most widely used analog frequency dividers [5]�=-=��[7]-=-. Frequency division in such a divider results from combining frequency multiplication in the feedback path with mixing at the input. Regenerative dividers can operate at frequencies higher than flip-... |

3 |
The modeling, analysis, and design of filter-based parametric frequency dividers
- Sloan
- 1993
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...rative frequency dividers are not the best solution for low-power systems. Parametric frequency dividers [Fig. 1(b)] are another group of analog frequency dividers used in microwave systems [3], [5], =-=[15]-=-. The frequency division principle of a parametric frequency divider relies on exciting a varactor at frequency and realizing a negative resistance that sustains a loop gain of unity at . High varacto... |

2 |
Theory of subharmonic synchronization of nonlinear oscilators
- Daryoush, Berceli, et al.
- 1989
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ic ILO, the oscillation frequency is the same as the fundamental frequency of the incident signal [1], while in a subharmonic ILO, the incident frequency is a subharmonic of the oscillation frequency =-=[4], -=-[9], [14], [20]. Likewise, in a superharmonic ILO, the incident frequency is a harmonic of the oscillation frequency. Uzunoglu et al. [16], [17] used synchronous oscillators (SO’s) as frequency divi... |

2 | Superharmonic Injection Locked Oscillators as Low Power Frequency Dividers
- Rategh, Lee
- 1998
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...to operate SO’s in a voltage-limited amplitude regime. Therefore, SO’s are not appropriate for low-power systems. Unlike SO’s, superharmonic ILO’s can be designed as very low-power frequency d=-=ividers [10]. -=-In this paper, we present a new method to calculate the locking range of ILO’s. We also introduce two different mechanisms for failure of injection locking. A differential equation is derived that m... |

2 |
Harmonic synchronization of nonlinear oscillators
- Schmideg
- 1971
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...e oscillation frequency is the same as the fundamental frequency of the incident signal [1], while in a subharmonic ILO, the incident frequency is a subharmonic of the oscillation frequency [4], [9], =-=[14], -=-[20]. Likewise, in a superharmonic ILO, the incident frequency is a harmonic of the oscillation frequency. Uzunoglu et al. [16], [17] used synchronous oscillators (SO’s) as frequency dividers, witho... |

2 |
A study of subharmonic injection locking for local oscillators
- Zhang, Zhou, et al.
- 1992
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...llation frequency is the same as the fundamental frequency of the incident signal [1], while in a subharmonic ILO, the incident frequency is a subharmonic of the oscillation frequency [4], [9], [14], =-=[20]. -=-Likewise, in a superharmonic ILO, the incident frequency is a harmonic of the oscillation frequency. Uzunoglu et al. [16], [17] used synchronous oscillators (SO’s) as frequency dividers, without pro... |

1 |
Subharmonic injection locking phenomenon in synchronous oscillators
- Poole
- 1990
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...O, the oscillation frequency is the same as the fundamental frequency of the incident signal [1], while in a subharmonic ILO, the incident frequency is a subharmonic of the oscillation frequency [4], =-=[9], -=-[14], [20]. Likewise, in a superharmonic ILO, the incident frequency is a harmonic of the oscillation frequency. Uzunoglu et al. [16], [17] used synchronous oscillators (SO’s) as frequency dividers,... |

1 |
5 GHz, 1 mW CMOS voltage controlled differential injection locked frequency divider
- “A
- 1999
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...change as the incident frequency changes. However, to achieve a larger tuning range, the free-running oscillation frequency of the ILO can be modified such that it tracks the incident frequency [11], =-=[12]. -=-III. NOISE IN ILO’s To investigate the phase noise performance of an ILO, we first consider the response of a first-harmonic ILO to a deterministic sinusoidal noise. For convenience, the model for a... |

1 |
Coherent phase-locked synchronous oscillator (graphical design technique
- Uzunoglu, Ma, et al.
- 1993
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...dent frequency is a subharmonic of the oscillation frequency [4], [9], [14], [20]. Likewise, in a superharmonic ILO, the incident frequency is a harmonic of the oscillation frequency. Uzunoglu et al. =-=[16], [1-=-7] used synchronous oscillators (SO’s) as frequency dividers, without providing a physical model for the frequency division functionality of SO’s. The SO proposed in [17] is a nonlinear oscillator... |