## Parallelization, Amplification, and Exponential Time Simulation of Quantum Interactive Proof Systems (2000)

Venue: | In Proceedings of the 32nd ACM Symposium on Theory of Computing |

Citations: | 63 - 18 self |

### BibTeX

@INPROCEEDINGS{Kitaev00parallelization,amplification,,

author = {Alexei Kitaev and John Watrous},

title = {Parallelization, Amplification, and Exponential Time Simulation of Quantum Interactive Proof Systems},

booktitle = {In Proceedings of the 32nd ACM Symposium on Theory of Computing},

year = {2000},

pages = {608--617}

}

### Years of Citing Articles

### OpenURL

### Abstract

In this paper we consider quantum interactive proof systems, which are interactive proof systems in which the prover and verier may perform quantum computations and exchange quantum information. We prove that any polynomial-round quantum interactive proof system with two-sided bounded error can be parallelized to a quantum interactive proof system with exponentially small one-sided error in which the prover and verier exchange only 3 messages. This yields a simplied proof that PSPACE has 3-message quantum interactive proof systems. We also prove that any language having a quantum interactive proof system can be decided in deterministic exponential time, implying that single-prover quantum interactive proof systems are strictly less powerful than multiple-prover classical interactive proof systems unless EXP = NEXP. 1. INTRODUCTION Interactive proof systems were introduced by Babai [3] and Goldwasser, Micali, and Racko [17] in 1985. In the same year, Deutsch [10] gave the rst for...