## Surface Modeling with Oriented Particle Systems (1991)

Venue: | Computer Graphics |

Citations: | 200 - 6 self |

### BibTeX

@INPROCEEDINGS{Szeliski91surfacemodeling,

author = {Richard Szeliski and Richard Szeliski and David Tonnesen and David Tonnesen},

title = {Surface Modeling with Oriented Particle Systems},

booktitle = {Computer Graphics},

year = {1991},

pages = {185--194}

}

### Years of Citing Articles

### OpenURL

### Abstract

Splines and deformable surface models are widely used in computer graphics to describe free-form surfaces. These methods require manual preprocessing to discretize the surface into patches and to specify their connectivity. We present a new model of elastic surfaces based on interacting particle systems, which, unlike previous techniques, can be used to split, join, or extend surfaces without the need for manual intervention. The particles we use have long-range attraction forces and short-range repulsion forces and follow Newtonian dynamics, much like recent computational models of fluids and solids. To enable our particles to model surface elements instead of point masses or volume elements, we add an orientation to each particle's state. We devise new interaction potentials for our oriented particles which favor locally planar or spherical arrangements. We also develop techniques for adding new particles automatically, which enables our surfaces to stretch and grow. We demonstrate t...

### Citations

720 | Deformable models - Terzopoulos, Fleischer - 1988 |

617 | A System for Doing Mathematics by Computer - Wolfram - 1991 |

387 |
A generalization of algebraic surface drawing
- Blinn
- 1982
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Citation Context ...only occasionally and cache the list of neighbors for intermediate time steps. 5 Rendering A variety of techniques have been developed for rendering particle systems, including light emitting points [=-=Blinn, 1982a; Reeves -=-and Blau, 1985; Sims, 1990] and iso-surfaces or "blobbies" [Blinn, 1982b; Wyvill et al., 1986; Hersh, 1987; Miller and Pearce, 1989; Tonnesen, 1989] for modeling volumes. For rendering orien... |

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349 |
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Citation Context ...r, the behavior resembles that of viscous fluids [Terzopoulos et al., 1989; Miller and Pearce, 1989]. More sophisticated models of molecular dynamics are used in simulations of physics and chemistry [=-=Hockney and Eastwood, 1988-=-]; however, these are designed for high accuracy and are usually too slow for animation or modeling applications. 3 Oriented Particles While particle systems are much more flexible than deformable sur... |

181 |
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Citation Context ...only occasionally and cache the list of neighbors for intermediate time steps. 5 Rendering A variety of techniques have been developed for rendering particle systems, including light emitting points [=-=Blinn, 1982a; Reeves -=-and Blau, 1985; Sims, 1990] and iso-surfaces or "blobbies" [Blinn, 1982b; Wyvill et al., 1986; Hersh, 1987; Miller and Pearce, 1989; Tonnesen, 1989] for modeling volumes. For rendering orien... |

156 |
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Citation Context ...lly and cache the list of neighbors for intermediate time steps. 5 Rendering A variety of techniques have been developed for rendering particle systems, including light emitting points [Blinn, 1982a; =-=Reeves and Blau, 1985; Sims, 19-=-90] and iso-surfaces or "blobbies" [Blinn, 1982b; Wyvill et al., 1986; Hersh, 1987; Miller and Pearce, 1989; Tonnesen, 1989] for modeling volumes. For rendering oriented particles, simple ic... |

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Citation Context ... particles move under the influence of force fields and constraints but do not interact with each other. More recent particle systems borrow ideas from molecular dynamics to model liquids and solids [=-=Miller and Pearce, 1989-=-; Terzopoulos et al., 1989; Tonnesen, 1991]. In these models, which have spherically symmetric potential fields, particles arrange themselves into volumes rather than surfaces. In this paper, we devel... |

32 |
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Citation Context ... (u 1 ; u 2 ) are the piecewise polynomial basis functions. The surface shape can then be adjusted by interactively positioning the control vertices or by directly manipulating points on the surface [=-=Bartels and Beatty, 1989-=-]. Elastically deformable surface models [Terzopoulos et al., 1987b; Terzopoulos and Fleischer, 1988a] also start with a parametric representation for the surface s(u 1 ; u 2 ). To define the dynamics... |

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28 A Finite element analysis of local deformation energies [Tonnesen
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Citation Context ... and constraints but do not interact with each other. More recent particle systems borrow ideas from molecular dynamics to model liquids and solids [Miller and Pearce, 1989; Terzopoulos et al., 1989; =-=Tonnesen, 1991-=-]. In these models, which have spherically symmetric potential fields, particles arrange themselves into volumes rather than surfaces. In this paper, we develop a new kind of particle model, oriented ... |

1 | of these assumptions are reasonable for our surfaces, since the Lennard-Jones forces favor locally hexagonal arrangements, and a sufficiently high sampling density will ensure small deflections. For an analysis of the general parametric patch case, see [C - Both - 1991 |