## A Simple Approximation to Minimum-Delay Routing (1999)

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Venue: | Proc. of ACM SIGCOMM |

Citations: | 75 - 7 self |

### BibTeX

@INPROCEEDINGS{Vutukury99asimple,

author = {Srinivas Vutukury and J.J. Garcia-Luna-Aceves},

title = {A Simple Approximation to Minimum-Delay Routing},

booktitle = {Proc. of ACM SIGCOMM},

year = {1999},

pages = {227--238}

}

### Years of Citing Articles

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### Abstract

The conventional approach to routing in computer networks consists of using a heuristic to compute a single shortest path from a source to a destination. Single-path routing is very responsive to topological and link-cost changes; however, except under light traffic loads, the delays obtained with this type of routing are far from optimal. Furthermore, if link costs are associated with delays, single-path routing exhibits oscillatory behavior and becomes unstable as traffic loads increase. On the other hand, minimumdelay routing approaches can minimize delays only when traffic is stationary or very slowly changing. We present a "near-optimal" routing framework that offers delays comparable to those of optimal routing and that is as flexible and responsive as single-path routing protocols proposed to date. First, an approximation to the Gallager's minimum-delay routing problem is derived, and then algorithms that implement the approximation scheme are presented and verified. We introdu...

### Citations

750 |
OSPF version 2
- Moy
- 1998
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...stricted mainly to using better link cost metrics (e.g., [18, 13]) or using multiple-paths. To avoid undetected loops, OSPF permits multiple paths to a destination only when they have the same length =-=[20]-=-. More recently, Zaumen and Garcia-Luna-Aceves [27] proposed an algorithm based on distance vectors that supports multiple paths of unequal costs to each destination; however, link costs are not tied ... |

278 | The new routing algorithm for the ARPANET
- McQuillan, Richer, et al.
- 1980
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...asi-static. Because of its oscillatory behavior when link costs are related to delays, attempts to improving shortest-path routing have been restricted mainly to using better link cost metrics (e.g., =-=[18, 13]-=-) or using multiple-paths. To avoid undetected loops, OSPF permits multiple paths to a destination only when they have the same length [20]. More recently, Zaumen and Garcia-Luna-Aceves [27] proposed ... |

262 |
Termination detection for diffusing computations
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- 1980
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...s acknowledged by all its neighbors before the router sends the next LSU. The inter-neighbor synchronization used in MPDA spans only a single hop, unlike the synchronization in diffusing computations =-=[7]-=- which potentially spans the whole network. A router is said to be in ACTIVE state when it is waiting for its neighbors to acknowledge the LSU message it sent; otherwise, it is in PASSIVE state. Assum... |

182 |
A minimum delay routing algorithm using distributed computation
- Gallager
- 1977
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...mal, while being as fast as today’s shortest-path routing schemes. Section 2 presents the minimum-delay routing problem (MDRP) as described by Gallager, and Gallager’s minimum-delay routing algorithm =-=[8]-=-. Gallager’s algorithm is unsuitable for practical networks and internetworks, because its speed of convergence to the optimal routes depends on a global constant, and because it requires that the inp... |

99 |
A failsafe distributed routing protocol
- Merlin, Segall
- 1979
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...imum-delay routing algorithm [2, 6, 23, 24]. Segall and Sidi [23, 24] extended Gallager’s minimum-delay routing algorithm to handle topological changes using techniques developed by Merlin and Segall =-=[19]-=-. Cassandras et al. [6] present a better technique for measuring marginal delays. Bertsekas and Gallager [2] used second derivatives to speed up convergence of Gallager’s algorithm. However, all these... |

86 |
Loop-free routing using diffusing computations
- Garcia-Luna-Aceves
- 1993
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... that may lead to looping. Several algorithms have been proposed in the past to provide loop-free paths at every instant for the case of single-path routing (e.g., the Jaffe-Moss algorithm [15], DUAL =-=[9]-=-, LPA [11], and the Merlin-Segall algorithm [19]) and one algorithm, DASM, has been proposed for the case of multiple paths per destination [27]. All these algorithms are based on the exchange of vect... |

71 | A responsive distributed routing algorithm for computer networks
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- 1982
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...f neighbors that may lead to looping. Several algorithms have been proposed in the past to provide loop-free paths at every instant for the case of single-path routing (e.g., the Jaffe-Moss algorithm =-=[15]-=-, DUAL [9], LPA [11], and the Merlin-Segall algorithm [19]) and one algorithm, DASM, has been proposed for the case of multiple paths per destination [27]. All these algorithms are based on the exchan... |

50 |
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- 1989
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... becomes unstable when f ik approaches C ik , an on-line estimation of the marginal delays is desirable. There are several techniques for computing marginal delays that are currently available (e.g., =-=[23, 22, 6]-=-). For the purposes of simulations, we borrow a technique introduced by Cassandras, Abidi and Towsley [6] for on-line estimation of the marginal delay D0(f ik ). The technique uses perturbation analys... |

48 | Distributed, scalable routing based on vectors of link states
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- 1995
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...so that each router has sufficient link-state information to compute shortest paths to all destinations. In this respect, it is similar to other link-state algorithms (e.g., OSPF [20], SPTA [25], LVA =-=[10]-=-, ALP [12]). PDA combines the best features of LVA, ALP and SPTA. As in LVA and ALP, a router communicates to its neighbors information regarding only those links that are part of its minimum-cost rou... |

46 | A path finding algorithm for loop-free routing
- Garcia-Luna-Aceves, Murthy
- 1997
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... lead to looping. Several algorithms have been proposed in the past to provide loop-free paths at every instant for the case of single-path routing (e.g., the Jaffe-Moss algorithm [15], DUAL [9], LPA =-=[11]-=-, and the Merlin-Segall algorithm [19]) and one algorithm, DASM, has been proposed for the case of multiple paths per destination [27]. All these algorithms are based on the exchange of vectors of dis... |

44 | Shortest Path First with Emergency Exits
- Wang, Crowcroft
- 1990
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...rcia-Luna-Aceves [27] proposed an algorithm based on distance vectors that supports multiple paths of unequal costs to each destination; however, link costs are not tied to delays. Wang and Crowcroft =-=[26]-=- addressed the drawbacks of the shortest-path first (SPF) algorithm by using alternate paths to detour traffic around points of congestion or network failures. However, the alternate paths in SPF-EE (... |

35 | Optimal Routing in a Packet-Switched Computer Network
- Cantor, Gerla
- 1974
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ated with the transmission and queueing delays over links and paths. A less common approach to routing is that of defining the routing problem as an optimization problem (e.g., multicommodity problem =-=[5]-=-) with a specific objective function, such as minimizing delays or maximizing throughput, and solving the problem using any of several known optimization techniques. These two traditional approaches t... |

32 |
Eigrp-a fast routing protocol based on distance vectors
- Albrightson, Garcia-Luna-Aceves, et al.
- 1994
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...t-path algorithm. Because of the instantaneous loop-freedom property that MPDA exhibits, the shortest-path delays obtained this way are better than or similar to the delays obtained with either EIGRP =-=[1]-=-, which is based on DUAL and requires much more internodal synchronization than our scheme, rendering longer delays, and RIP [14] or OSPF [20], which do not prevent temporary loops. We use the label ’... |

31 |
Routing Information Protocol
- Hendrick
- 1988
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...way are better than or similar to the delays obtained with either EIGRP [1], which is based on DUAL and requires much more internodal synchronization than our scheme, rendering longer delays, and RIP =-=[14]-=- or OSPF [20], which do not prevent temporary loops. We use the label ’SP’ for single-path routing in the graphs. We performed simulations on the topologies shown in Fig. 8. CAIRN (www.cairn.net) is a... |

29 |
Event Driven Topology Broadcast without Sequence Numbers
- Spinelli, Gallager
- 1989
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... network, so that each router has sufficient link-state information to compute shortest paths to all destinations. In this respect, it is similar to other link-state algorithms (e.g., OSPF [20], SPTA =-=[25]-=-, LVA [10], ALP [12]). PDA combines the best features of LVA, ALP and SPTA. As in LVA and ALP, a router communicates to its neighbors information regarding only those links that are part of its minimu... |

26 |
The Modeling of Adaptive Routing in Data Communication Networks
- Segall
- 1977
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...se it requires that the input traffic and network topology be stationary or quasistationary. Several algorithms have been proposed to date that improve over Gallager’s minimum-delay routing algorithm =-=[2, 6, 23, 24]-=-. Segall and Sidi [23, 24] extended Gallager’s minimum-delay routing algorithm to handle topological changes using techniques developed by Merlin and Segall [19]. Cassandras et al. [6] present a bette... |

23 |
A new metric for dynamic routing algorithms
- Glazer, Tropper
- 1990
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...asi-static. Because of its oscillatory behavior when link costs are related to delays, attempts to improving shortest-path routing have been restricted mainly to using better link cost metrics (e.g., =-=[18, 13]-=-) or using multiple-paths. To avoid undetected loops, OSPF permits multiple paths to a destination only when they have the same length [20]. More recently, Zaumen and Garcia-Luna-Aceves [27] proposed ... |

17 |
A Failsafe Distributed Protocol for Minimum Delay Routing
- Segall, Sidi
- 1981
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...se it requires that the input traffic and network topology be stationary or quasistationary. Several algorithms have been proposed to date that improve over Gallager’s minimum-delay routing algorithm =-=[2, 6, 23, 24]-=-. Segall and Sidi [23, 24] extended Gallager’s minimum-delay routing algorithm to handle topological changes using techniques developed by Merlin and Segall [19]. Cassandras et al. [6] present a bette... |

14 |
Scalable link-state internet routing
- Garica-Luna-Aceves, Spohn
- 1998
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ch router has sufficient link-state information to compute shortest paths to all destinations. In this respect, it is similar to other link-state algorithms (e.g., OSPF [20], SPTA [25], LVA [10], ALP =-=[12]-=-). PDA combines the best features of LVA, ALP and SPTA. As in LVA and ALP, a router communicates to its neighbors information regarding only those links that are part of its minimum-cost routing tree,... |

7 |
derivative algorithm for minimum delay distributed routing in networks
- Bersekas, Gallager, et al.
- 1977
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...se it requires that the input traffic and network topology be stationary or quasistationary. Several algorithms have been proposed to date that improve over Gallager’s minimum-delay routing algorithm =-=[2, 6, 23, 24]-=-. Segall and Sidi [23, 24] extended Gallager’s minimum-delay routing algorithm to handle topological changes using techniques developed by Merlin and Segall [19]. Cassandras et al. [6] present a bette... |

5 |
Dynamic Behavior of Shortest-Path Algorithms for Communication Networks
- Bertsekas
- 1982
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ortest-path routing becomes unstable under heavy loads or very bursty traffic when the link cost metric used in the routing algorithm is related to the delays or congestion experienced over the links =-=[3]-=-. The fact that shortest-path routing over single paths is far less efficient than optimal dynamic routing and the oscillatory behavior of shortest-path routing when link costs are tied to link delays... |

4 |
Distributed Routing with Onn-Line Marginal Delay Estimation
- Cassandras, Abidi, et al.
- 1990
(Show Context)
Citation Context |

3 |
A Near-Optimum Multiple Path Routing Algorithm for Space-Based SDI Networks
- Cain, Adams, et al.
- 1987
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...wever, the alternate paths in SPF-EE (for emergency exits) are computed on a reactive basis, i.e., once congestion occurs, which is less effective in dealing with short bursts of traffic. Cain et al. =-=[4]-=- describe a routing algorithm for minimizing delays. However, this algorithm requires that the routing-table updates at all the routers be synchronized, otherwise looping occurs, which increases end-t... |

3 |
Communication Nets: Stochastic Message Flow and Delay
- Klienrock
- 1964
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...y over the link D0(f ik ). If the links are assumed to behave like M/M/1 queues, then the marginal delayD0(f ik ) can be obtained in a closed form expression by differentiating the following equation =-=[16]-=-. D ik (f ik ) = f ik (C ik f ik ) + ik f ik (24) where f ik is the flow through the link (i; k), and C ik and ik are the capacity and propagation delay of the link. Because the M/M/1 assumption... |

2 |
Multipath Routing Using Diffusing Computations, M.S. Thesis
- Kourkouzelis
- 1997
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...als; link costs measured over short intervals of length T s are used for routing-parameter computation and link costs measured over longer intervals of length T l are used for routingpath computation =-=[17]-=-. In general, T l must be several times longer than T s . Long-term updates are designed to handle long-term traffic changes and are used by the routing protocol to update the successor sets at each r... |

1 |
Zaumen and J.J. Garcia-Luna-Aceves.Loop-Free Multipath Routing Using Generalized Diffusing Computations
- T
- 1998
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...e.g., [18, 13]) or using multiple-paths. To avoid undetected loops, OSPF permits multiple paths to a destination only when they have the same length [20]. More recently, Zaumen and Garcia-Luna-Aceves =-=[27]-=- proposed an algorithm based on distance vectors that supports multiple paths of unequal costs to each destination; however, link costs are not tied to delays. Wang and Crowcroft [26] addressed the dr... |