## Formal Theory Building Using Automated Reasoning Tools (1998)

Venue: | In |

Citations: | 6 - 6 self |

### BibTeX

@INPROCEEDINGS{Kamps98formaltheory,

author = {Jaap Kamps},

title = {Formal Theory Building Using Automated Reasoning Tools},

booktitle = {In},

year = {1998},

pages = {478--487},

publisher = {Morgan Kaufmann Publishers}

}

### OpenURL

### Abstract

The merits of representing scientific theories in formal logic are well-known. Expressing a scientific theory in formal logic explicates the theory as a whole, and the logic provides formal criteria for evaluating the theory, such as soundness and consistency. On the one hand, these criteria correspond to natural questions to be asked about the theory: is the theory contradiction-free? (is the theory logically consistent?) is the theoretical argumentation valid? (can a theorem be soundly derived from the premises?) and other such questions. On the other hand, testing for these criteria amounts to making many specific proof attempts or model searches: respectively, does the theory have a model? can we find a proof of a particular theorem? As a result, testing for these criteria quickly defies manual processing. Fortunately, automated reasoning provides some valuable tools for this endeavor. This paper discusses the use of first-order logic and existing automated rea...

### Citations

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(Show Context)
Citation Context ...emented with definitions). The theory itself is the deductive closure of the set of premises (Tarski 1956). Theoretical explanations and predictions correspond to deductions from the set of premises (=-=Popper 1959-=-). We prefer to use this strict notion of a theory over more liberal ones. 2 The reason for this is simple: our main interest is the justification of theories, and we are therefore interested in stric... |

293 | 3.0 Reference Manual and Guide
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Citation Context ...soning provides some invaluable tools. At ALL we use the following: Automated theorem provers are programs designed for finding proofs of conjectures. For the case study of this paper, we used Otter (=-=McCune 1994-=-b), a resolution-style theorem prover for first-order logic with equality. This theorem prover can find inconsistencies in the set of input formulas. Its principal use is to construct refutation proof... |

136 |
Proofs and refutations: the logic of mathematical discovery
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Citation Context ...text of discovery: during the formalization process, we will repeatedly refine the (formal) theory. This makes our methodology more in line with more recent philosophy of science, in particular with (=-=Lakatos 1976-=-). Lakatos gives a logical analysis of the development of theories over time, with which the case study of section 3 shows remarkable resemblance (especially his classroom dialogue attempting to prove... |

95 | A Davis-Putnam program and its application to finite first-order model seach: Quasigroup existence problems
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Citation Context ...soning provides some invaluable tools. At ALL we use the following: Automated theorem provers are programs designed for finding proofs of conjectures. For the case study of this paper, we used Otter (=-=McCune 1994-=-b), a resolution-style theorem prover for first-order logic with equality. This theorem prover can find inconsistencies in the set of input formulas. Its principal use is to construct refutation proof... |

26 |
Rethinking age dependence in organizational mortality: logical formalizations
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Citation Context ...l Ecology including their theory of organizational inertia (P'eli et al. 1994), life history strategies (P'eli and Masuch 1997), niche width (Bruggeman 1997; P'eli 1997), and age dependence fragment (=-=Hannan 1997-=-). 3 These and most other social science theories are stated in natural language. As a result, the main obstacle for formalizing such a discursive theory is their rational reconstruction: interpreting... |

21 |
An Axiomatic Theory of Organizations
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Citation Context ... interrelate the eight organizational variables. According to Hage, there are 21 theorems derivable from these seven natural language axioms. Table 1 reprints the 7 axioms and 21 corollaries used in (=-=Hage 1965-=-, p.300). We will reconstruct Hage's theory by formalizing it in first-order logic. theories, especially if the original authors can be consulted. A case in point is (P'eli and Masuch 1997). 3.2 A FIR... |

17 |
The desirability of formalization in science
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Citation Context ...rmalism, a formal exposition of a scientific theory allows readers to understand the theory, to distinguish between alternative readings, to gauge its boundaries, and to compare it with alternatives (=-=Suppes 1968-=-). We use the classical, axiomatic-deductive notion of a theory. The premises of a theory consist of universal statements (universal laws or empirical generalizations, possibly supplemented with defin... |

14 |
The Niche Hiker's Guide to Population Ecology: A logical reconstruction of organization ecology's niche theory
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(Show Context)
Citation Context ...8), and Hannan and Freeman's Organizational Ecology including their theory of organizational inertia (P'eli et al. 1994), life history strategies (P'eli and Masuch 1997), niche width (Bruggeman 1997; =-=P'eli 1997-=-), and age dependence fragment (Hannan 1997). 3 These and most other social science theories are stated in natural language. As a result, the main obstacle for formalizing such a discursive theory is ... |

10 |
The Logic of Propagation Strategies: Axiomatizing a Fragment of Organizational Ecology in First-Order Logic’, Organization Science 8: 310–31
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(Show Context)
Citation Context ...mpson's Organizations in Action (Kamps and P'olos 1998), and Hannan and Freeman's Organizational Ecology including their theory of organizational inertia (P'eli et al. 1994), life history strategies (=-=P'eli and Masuch 1997-=-), niche width (Bruggeman 1997; P'eli 1997), and age dependence fragment (Hannan 1997). 3 These and most other social science theories are stated in natural language. As a result, the main obstacle fo... |

9 |
Niche Width Theory Reappraised
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(Show Context)
Citation Context ...s and P'olos 1998), and Hannan and Freeman's Organizational Ecology including their theory of organizational inertia (P'eli et al. 1994), life history strategies (P'eli and Masuch 1997), niche width (=-=Bruggeman 1997-=-; P'eli 1997), and age dependence fragment (Hannan 1997). 3 These and most other social science theories are stated in natural language. As a result, the main obstacle for formalizing such a discursiv... |

9 |
The Crisis in Finite Mathematics: Automated Reasoning as Curse and Cure
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(Show Context)
Citation Context ...es to it (for example, when all counterexamples have infinite cardinality). Still, current automated model generators are powerful enough to have solved several open problems in (finite) mathematics (=-=Slaney 1994-=-). We started this paper by referring to the positivist heritage that we share---the logical analysis for evaluating and justifying scientific theories. However, the use of the tools goes beyond a rig... |

5 |
Die Logik der Sozialwissenschaften, Kölner Zeitschrift für Soziologie und Sozialpsychologie 14
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(Show Context)
Citation Context ... it leads to an 2 Although this conception of theory is mainly inspired by theories in mathematics and physics, it is applicable to all empirical sciences, including the social sciences (Rudner 1966; =-=Popper 1969-=-). absurdity. An inconsistent theory is a trivial theory, in the sense that any statement (and its negation) is derivable from it. If we can derive a contradiction from some subset of the premises, th... |

4 | Reducing uncertainty: A formal theory of Organizations in Action
- Kamps, Pólos
- 1999
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...reasoning support tools have been performed. These case studies include the following social science theories: Mintzberg's Contingency Theory (Glorie et al. 1990), Thompson's Organizations in Action (=-=Kamps and P'olos 1998-=-), and Hannan and Freeman's Organizational Ecology including their theory of organizational inertia (P'eli et al. 1994), life history strategies (P'eli and Masuch 1997), niche width (Bruggeman 1997; P... |

3 |
Logical Positivism, The library of philosophical movements
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(Show Context)
Citation Context ...NTRODUCTION The theory building methodology outlined in this paper is by no means a new one. The use of formal logic to represent scientific theories dates, at least, back to the logical positivists (=-=Ayer 1959-=-). What is novel in our approach is the extensive use of automated reasoning tools. One of the reasons for the demise of positivism was the inability to put philosophy into practice. The formalization... |

3 |
Formalizing organizational theory: A knowledgebased approach
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- 1990
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...DY Several case studies of formalization using automated reasoning support tools have been performed. These case studies include the following social science theories: Mintzberg's Contingency Theory (=-=Glorie et al. 1990-=-), Thompson's Organizations in Action (Kamps and P'olos 1998), and Hannan and Freeman's Organizational Ecology including their theory of organizational inertia (P'eli et al. 1994), life history strate... |

2 | Automated Deduction --- CADE-12, Volume 814 - Bundy - 1994 |

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