## Least and Greatest Fixed Points in Intuitionistic Natural Deduction (2002)

### BibTeX

@MISC{Uustalu02leastand,

author = {Tarmo Uustalu and Varmo Vene},

title = {Least and Greatest Fixed Points in Intuitionistic Natural Deduction},

year = {2002}

}

### OpenURL

### Abstract

This paper is a comparative study of a number of (intensional-semantically distinct) least and greatest fixed point operators that natural-deduction proof systems for intuitionistic logics can be extended with in a proof-theoretically defendable way. Eight pairs of such operators are analysed. The exposition is centered around a cube-shaped classification where each node stands for an axiomatization of one pair of operators as logical constants by intended proof and reduction rules and each arc for a proof- and reduction-preserving encoding of one pair in terms of another. The three dimensions of the cube reflect three orthogonal binary options: conventional-style vs. Mendler-style, basic (``[co]iterative'') vs. enhanced (``primitive-[co]recursive''), simple vs. course-of-value [co]induction. Some of the axiomatizations and encodings are well-known; others, however, are novel; the classification into a cube is also new. The differences between the least fixed point operators considered are illustrated on the example of the corresponding natural number types.