## Rapidly-Exploring Random Trees: A New Tool for Path Planning (1998)

Citations: | 259 - 17 self |

### BibTeX

@TECHREPORT{Lavalle98rapidly-exploringrandom,

author = {Steven M. Lavalle},

title = {Rapidly-Exploring Random Trees: A New Tool for Path Planning},

institution = {},

year = {1998}

}

### Years of Citing Articles

### OpenURL

### Abstract

We introduce the concept of a Rapidly-exploring Random Tree (RRT) as a randomized data structure that is designed for a broad class of path planning problems. While they share many of the beneficial properties of existing randomized planning techniques, RRTs are specifically designed to handle nonholonomic constraints (including dynamics) and high degrees of freedom. An RRT is iteratively expanded by applying control inputs that drive the system slightly toward randomly-selected points, as opposed to requiring point-to-point convergence, as in the probabilistic roadmap approach. Several desirable properties and a basic implementation of RRTs are discussed. To date, we have successfully applied RRTs to holonomic, nonholonomic, and kinodynamic planning problems of up to twelve degrees of freedom.

### Citations

2118 |
Robot motion planning
- Latombe
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ce to indicate a greater generality than is usually considered in path planning. For a standard problem, X = C, which is the conguration space of a rigid body or system of bodies in a 2D or 3D world [=-=-=-5]. For a kinodynamic planning problem, X = T (C), which is the tangent bundle of the conguration space [7] (a state encodes both conguration and velocity). Many other interpretations of X are possibl... |

962 | Probabilistic roadmaps for path planning in highdimensional configuration spaces
- Kavraki, Svestka, et al.
- 1996
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...of path planning in a high-dimensional conguration space. Two of the more popular approaches include the randomized potentialseld algorithm (e.g., [2]) and the probabilistic roadmap algorithm (e.g., [=-=1, 4]-=-). Given these successes, and the fact that there is little hope of ever obtaining an ecient, general path planning algorithm, it is natural to ask: Why do we need another randomized path planning tec... |

445 | Randomized kinodynamic planning
- LaValle, Kuffner
- 1999
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... = C, which is the conguration space of a rigid body or system of bodies in a 2D or 3D world [5]. For a kinodynamic planning problem, X = T (C), which is the tangent bundle of the conguration space [7] (a state encodes both conguration and velocity). Many other interpretations of X are possible. It is assumed that asxed obstacle region, X obs X must be avoided, and that an explicit representatio... |

349 |
Robot motion planning: A distributed representation approach
- Barraquand, Latombe
- 1991
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...sed and successfully applied to the general problem of path planning in a high-dimensional conguration space. Two of the more popular approaches include the randomized potentialseld algorithm (e.g., [=-=2]-=-) and the probabilistic roadmap algorithm (e.g., [1, 4]). Given these successes, and the fact that there is little hope of ever obtaining an ecient, general path planning algorithm, it is natural to a... |

136 | A randomized roadmap method for path and manipulation planning
- Amato, Wu
- 1996
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...of path planning in a high-dimensional conguration space. Two of the more popular approaches include the randomized potentialseld algorithm (e.g., [2]) and the probabilistic roadmap algorithm (e.g., [=-=1, 4]-=-). Given these successes, and the fact that there is little hope of ever obtaining an ecient, general path planning algorithm, it is natural to ask: Why do we need another randomized path planning tec... |

66 | Guidelines in Nonholonomic motion planning for Mobile Robots
- Laumond, Sekhavat, et al.
- 1998
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ns with a Figure 1: A 2D projection of a 5D RRT for a kinodynamic car. local planner that will connect pairs of congurations. For planning of holonomic systems or steerable nonholonomic systems (see [=-=6]-=- and references therein), the local planning step might be ecient; however, in general the connection problem can be as dicult as designing a nonlinear controller, particularly for complicated nonholo... |

31 |
Kinodynamic planning
- Donald, Xavier, et al.
- 1993
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...gh powerful for standard path planning, they do not naturally extend to general nonholonomic planning problems. Using state-space representations, this class of problems includes kinodynamic planning =-=[3]-=-, which is an extremely general and important area in robotics, virtual prototyping, and many other applications. The randomized potentialseld method depends heavily on the choice of a good heuristic ... |