## Generalised Constraint Propagation Over the CLP Scheme (1992)

Venue: | Journal of Logic Programming |

Citations: | 11 - 4 self |

### BibTeX

@ARTICLE{Provost92generalisedconstraint,

author = {Thierry Le Provost and Mark Wallace},

title = {Generalised Constraint Propagation Over the CLP Scheme},

journal = {Journal of Logic Programming},

year = {1992},

volume = {16},

pages = {16--3}

}

### Years of Citing Articles

### OpenURL

### Abstract

Constraint logic programming is often described as logic programming with unification replaced by constraint solving over a computation domain. There is another, very different, CLP paradigm based on constraint satisfaction, where program-defined goals can be treated as constraints and handled using propagation. This paper proposes a generalisation of propagation, which enables it to be applied on arbitrary computation domains, revealing that the two paradigms of CLP are orthogonal, and can be freely combined. The main idea behind generalised propagation is to use whatever constraints are available over the computation domain to express restrictions on problem variables. Generalised propagation on a goal G requires that the system extracts a constraint approximating all the answers to G. The paper introduces a generic algorithm for generalised propagation called topological branch and bound which avoids enumerating all the answers to G. Generalised propagation over the Herbrand univers...

### Citations

1856 |
Foundations of Logic Programming
- Lloyd
- 1987
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...pty, computed answers are not lost. We must then show that no computed answers are lost as a result of propagation. The first requirement can be met at once. By modifying the switching lemma of Lloyd =-=[Llo84]-=- to admit constraints on any computation domain X, we conclude that the order in which goals are unfolded cannot change a CLP (X) refutation into a failed derivation. Moreover the computed answer retu... |

1003 |
Consistency in networks of relations
- Mackworth
- 1977
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ming propagation on a single constraint is called REV ISE [MF85]. Essentially the evaluation of a propagation sequence for generalised propagation can be obtained from the AC-3 algorithm of Mackworth =-=[Mac77]-=- by replacing REV ISE with topological branch and bound. A feature of AC-3 is that after propagating on a constraint C, C is removed from the list of constraints to be dealt with in the current propag... |

786 | Constraint logic programming
- Jaffar, Lassez
- 1987
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...straint store. Thus the state of an evaluation is represented by a triple ! Goal; Agents; Store ?. 3.2.2 Declarative Semantics for GP(X) We base our semantics on that introduced for the CLP scheme in =-=[JL86]-=-. The computation domain X provides an interpretation for the interpreted predicates, functions, and constants. The language LP of a CLP (X) program includes uninterpreted predicates, functions and co... |

459 |
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(Show Context)
Citation Context ...orithms for networks of constraints, the most widely applicable of these being arc-consistency [RHZ75, Mon74]. Consistency can be applied as a preliminary to the search steps or interleaved with them =-=[HE80]-=-. The application of these techniques in logic programming can be related back to the enforcement of link consistency in connections graphs [Kow79]. Finite domain propagation in logic programming was ... |

423 | Networks of constraints: fundamental properties and application to picture processing - Montanari - 1974 |

384 |
Incremental constraint satisfaction in logic programming
- Hentenryck
- 1989
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...e constraints are problem-specific, and defined by sets of tuples. When CSP is embedded into logic programming, a constraint can be defined in the program as a set of facts, or even as a set of rules =-=[Van89]. We shall-=- often refer to constraints in the CSP framework as "propagation constraints". For solving CSP problems in traditional logic programming systems, backtrack search is used. The aim is to perf... |

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264 |
The Complexity of Some Polynomial Network Consistency algorithms for Constraint Satisfaction Problems
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(Show Context)
Citation Context ...he result of propagation on A i . 23 4.0.7 Evaluating Propagation Sequences In the case of finite domain propagation, the procedure for performing propagation on a single constraint is called REV ISE =-=[MF85]-=-. Essentially the evaluation of a propagation sequence for generalised propagation can be obtained from the AC-3 algorithm of Mackworth [Mac77] by replacing REV ISE with topological branch and bound. ... |

215 |
Constraint propagation with interval labels
- Davis
- 1987
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...hniques is that problem variables should have an associated domain of possible values. Traditionally [Mac77, HE80] this is a finite domain, though more recently continuous intervals have been studied =-=[Dav87]-=-. Up to now, constraint logic programming systems based on the CSP paradigm (eg CHIP [DVS + 88]) have only been defined for finite domain variables. For each problem variable a finite domain declarati... |

190 |
Concurrent Constraint Programming Languages
- Saraswat
- 1989
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... an valuation ` for which X j= S` and P j= X G` 3.2.3 Operational Semantics for GP(X) We have chosen a transformational semantics for our constraint logic programming system following the approach of =-=[Sar89]-=- and [HD91]. GP(X) States At any point in a GP (X) evaluation, the current state is formalised as a triple ! fG 1 ; : : : ; G r g; fA 1 ; : : : ; A s g; fC 1 ; : : : ; C t g ?. The current goal fG 1 ;... |

129 |
Logic Semantics for a Class of Committed-Choice Programs
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Citation Context ...s. A second point is that the consistency check covers all the basic constraints which have been collected up during the computation (which distinguishes constraints from ordinary built-in predicates =-=[Mah87]-=-). This check must, in theory, be effective. 1.2 CSP in Logic Programming There is another, very different, CLP paradigm which is based on constraint satisfaction techniques dating back to 1965 [GB65,... |

91 |
Predicate logic as computational formalism
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(Show Context)
Citation Context ...xpressed using variable domains. The practical relevance of generalised propagation has been tested by implementing it in the underlying constraint theory of first-order terms with syntactic equality =-=[Cla79]-=-, which is GP (HU ). Programs are just sets of Prolog rules with annotations identifying the goals to be used for propagation. The language has enabled us to write programs which are simple, yet effic... |

89 | Backtrack programming - Golomb, Baumert - 1965 |

71 | Kernel Andorra Prolog and its computation model
- Haridi, Janson
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Citation Context ... Andorra principle [War88] and the preference for deterministic computation which underlies constraint propagation. Based on Warren's extended Andorra model [War90], the language AKL has been defined =-=[HJ90]-=-. In this section we compare generalised propagation with AKL. Andorra promotes deterministic computations. The control of how hard to work to find subcomputations that yield deterministic results has... |

48 |
Solving large combinatorial problems in Logic Programming
- Dincbas, Simonis, et al.
- 1990
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...uch propagation techniques can have a dramatic effect in cutting down the size of the search space. Evidence of the practical effectiveness of constraints propagation in logic programming is given in =-=[DSV90]-=-. 1.3 Restrictions on Propagation in Logic Programming One prerequisite for applying CSP techniques is that problem variables should have an associated domain of possible values. Traditionally [Mac77,... |

46 | REF-ARF: A system for solving problems stated as procedures - Fikes - 1970 |

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43 |
The extended Andorra model with implicit control
- Warren
- 1990
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...en often pointed out between David Warren's Andorra principle [War88] and the preference for deterministic computation which underlies constraint propagation. Based on Warren's extended Andorra model =-=[War90]-=-, the language AKL has been defined [HJ90]. In this section we compare generalised propagation with AKL. Andorra promotes deterministic computations. The control of how hard to work to find subcomputa... |

42 | On the efficient computation of the difference between consecutive database states. DOOD - Kuchenhoff - 1991 |

36 |
Most specific logic programs
- Marriott, Naish, et al.
- 1990
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...d. 5.1 Most Specific Logic Programs The instance GP (HU ) of generalised propagation extracts information from propagation constraints which is precisely the most specific generalisation described in =-=[MNL88]-=-. In this earlier work, the most specific generalisation of a set of possible solutions was calculated in advance of execution, so as to transform a program statically into one which was more efficien... |

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25 | Residuation and Guarded Rules for Constraint Logic Programming
- Smolka
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... such as the Herbrand domain, cannot be defined precisely enough for our needs by a theory, so we have returned to the earlier formalisation. Our completeness requirement is expressed as follows (see =-=[Smo91]-=-): Definition 4 Over the computation domain X, a set of computed answers R represents a set of solutions \Theta, if, for every solution ` 2 \Theta, there is a computed answer r 2 R such that X j= r`. ... |

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Operational Semantics of Constraint Logic Programming over Finite Domains
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Citation Context ...n ` for which X j= S` and P j= X G` 3.2.3 Operational Semantics for GP(X) We have chosen a transformational semantics for our constraint logic programming system following the approach of [Sar89] and =-=[HD91]-=-. GP(X) States At any point in a GP (X) evaluation, the current state is formalised as a triple ! fG 1 ; : : : ; G r g; fA 1 ; : : : ; A s g; fC 1 ; : : : ; C t g ?. The current goal fG 1 ; : : : ; G ... |

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16 |
Logic Programming: Further Developments
- Gallaire
- 1985
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Citation Context ...e it as an a posteriori test. To summarise, logic programs can only use propagation constraints passively. Our motivation for constraints logic programming is to support the active use of constraints =-=[Gal85]-=-. This is provided by techniques developed for solving constraint satisfaction problems. It should be noted that constraint solving over a computation domain, as described in section 1.1 above, is rep... |

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10 |
Theoretical Model of Prolog II
- Colmerauer
- 1986
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Experiments on the Running Time Behaviour of Some Algorithms Solving Propositional Logical Problems. Anns. Opns. Res
- MITTERREITER, RADERMACHER
- 1993
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Citation Context ... to resort to constructs without a clear declarative semantics such as demons. Applications tackled include a set of propositional satisfiability problems collected as a benchmark for theorem provers =-=[MR91]-=-, temporal reasoning, and disjunctive scheduling problems. The performance results have been very encouraging. In the next section we shall describe finite domain propagation in logic programming, and... |

7 |
Negation and control in Prolog, volume 238
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- 1986
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Citation Context ...In many applications it is of interest to detect the success or failure of membership as soon as possible, instead of just using member as a check. Yet even this is a serious problem (see for example =-=[Nai86]-=-). For example even if the tail of the list is known most control regimes require the check to delay until the head of the list either equals or fails to unify with the first argument. Generalised pro... |

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