## Breaking DES Using a Molecular Computer (1995)

Citations: | 57 - 4 self |

### BibTeX

@MISC{Boneh95breakingdes,

author = {Dan Boneh and Christopher Dunworth and Richard J. Lipton},

title = {Breaking DES Using a Molecular Computer},

year = {1995}

}

### Years of Citing Articles

### OpenURL

### Abstract

Recently Adleman [1] has shown that a small traveling salesman problem can be solved by molecular operations. In this paper we show how the same principles can be applied to breaking the Data Encryption Standard (DES). Our method is based on an encoding technique presented in Lipton [8]. We describe in detail a library of operations which are useful when working with a molecular computer. We estimate that given one arbitrary (plain-text, cipher-text) pair, one can recover the DES key in about 4 months of work. Furthermore, if one is given cipher-text, but the plain text is only known to be one of several candidates then it is still possible to recover the key in about 4 months of work. Finally, under chosen cipher-text attack it is possible to recover the DES key in one day using some preprocessing. 1 Introduction Due to advances in molecular biology it is nowadays possible to create a soup of roughly 10 18 DNA strands that fits in a small glass of water. Adleman [1] has shown that e...

### Citations

644 | Molecular computation of solutions to combinatorial problems
- Adleman
- 1994
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...3 Supported in part by NSF CCR{9304718. 11 Introduction Due to advances in molecular biology it is nowadays possible to create a soup of roughly 1017 DNA strands that ts in a liter of water. Adleman =-=[1]-=- has shown that each DNA strand can be used to perform computations. Thus, a small test tube containing DNA strands seems to have more computing power than the most powerful parallel computers. The dr... |

130 |
The ¯rst experimental cryptanalysis of the Data Encryption Standard
- Matsui
- 1994
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...] developed an alternate approach for breaking DES using DNA computations. It should be pointed out that attacks using di erential cryptanalysis methods have proven to be very useful for breaking DES =-=[6, 10]-=-. The central achievement of these attacks is that DES can be broken on a conventional computer in 2 43 steps. This means that DES can be broken within several days on a conventional computer. Note ho... |

91 | Differential Cryptanalysis of the Full 16-Round DES - Biham, Shamir - 1992 |

79 | A DNA and restriction enzyme implementation of Turing Machines. Unpublished manuscript
- Rothemund
- 1995
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...to recover the key in one day of work using some preprocessing. This means that after the preprocessing work is done it is possible to break many DES systems for very little work. Several researchers =-=[11]-=- have come up with various methods for implementing non-deterministic Turing Machines using molecular computers. Clearly a non-deterministic Turing Machine can break any crypto-system, including DES, ... |

70 | E±cient DES key search
- Wiener
- 1994
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...di erential cryptanalysis methods require 2 43 pairs of (plain-text, cipher-text), while our molecular computer requires only one such pair. Another conventional attack on DES was suggested by Wiener =-=[12]-=-. Wiener predicts that using dedicated hardware which costs $1 million it is possible to search through all 2 56 DES keys in 7 hours. Wiener's attack makes use of the special structure of the DES circ... |

53 | A universal molecular computer, in - Beaver - 1995 |

50 | Using DNA to Solve NP-Complete Problems - Lipton |

47 | On the computational power of DNA
- Boneh, Dunworth, et al.
- 1996
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...n Section 2. Recently, Lipton [9] has come up with an encoding scheme that enabled him to solve the satis ability problem of formulas with a small number of variables. A generalization of this scheme =-=[3]-=- can be used to solve the satis ability problem for circuits. Using these methods, the number of bio-steps required to nd a satisfying assignment is proportional to the size of the circuit. Lipton's a... |

40 | On applying molecular computations to the data encryption standard
- Adleman, Rothemund, et al.
- 1996
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...aking DES by simulating a non-deterministic Turing Machine would require millions of biological operations. Running such experiments would take hundreds of years. We note that recently Adleman et al. =-=[2]-=- developed an alternate approach for breaking DES using DNA computations. It should be pointed out that attacks using di erential cryptanalysis methods have proven to be very useful for breaking DES [... |

38 | Making DNA computers error resistant
- Boneh, Lipton, et al.
- 1996
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... experience with conventional electronic machines where fault-tolerance techniques enable one to perform error-free computations in the presence of faulty processors. We note that several researchers =-=[4, 8]-=- have already suggested some techniques for making molecular computers resistant to errors. 2 Overview of molecular computing In order to understand the computation described here, it is necessary to ... |

25 | Parallel molecular computation - Reif - 1995 |

16 |
Dierential Cryptanalysis of the Full 16-Round DES
- Biham, Shamir
- 1993
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...] developed an alternate approach for breaking DES using DNA computations. It should be pointed out that attacks using di erential cryptanalysis methods have proven to be very useful for breaking DES =-=[6, 10]-=-. The central achievement of these attacks is that DES can be broken on a conventional computer in 2 43 steps. This means that DES can be broken within several days on a conventional computer. Note ho... |

16 | Errorresilient DNA Computation
- Karp, Kenyon, et al.
- 1996
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... experience with conventional electronic machines where fault-tolerance techniques enable one to perform error-free computations in the presence of faulty processors. We note that several researchers =-=[4, 8]-=- have already suggested some techniques for making molecular computers resistant to errors. 2 Overview of molecular computing In order to understand the computation described here, it is necessary to ... |

5 |
Using DNA to solve NP-complete problems. Science 268
- Lipton
- 1995
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...h operation requires several hours to complete. Throughout the paper we will refer to operations done on DNA strands as bio-steps. This will be explained in more detail in Section 2. Recently, Lipton =-=[9]-=- has come up with an encoding scheme that enabled him to solve the satis ability problem of formulas with a small number of variables. A generalization of this scheme [3] can be used to solve the sati... |

2 | DNA Computers in Vitro and Vivo", unpublished manuscript - Smith |

1 | Notation for Molecular Biology", unpublished manuscript - Boneh, Dunworth, et al. |

1 | Efficient DES Key Search", Crypto 93 rump session - Wiener |