## Experimental Quantum Cryptography (1992)

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Venue: | Journal of Cryptology |

Citations: | 217 - 20 self |

### BibTeX

@ARTICLE{Bennett92experimentalquantum,

author = {Charles Bennett and François Bessette and Gilles Brassard and Louis Salvail and John Smolin},

title = {Experimental Quantum Cryptography},

journal = {Journal of Cryptology},

year = {1992},

volume = {5},

pages = {3--28}

}

### Years of Citing Articles

### OpenURL

### Abstract

We describe results from an apparatus and protocol designed to implement quantum key distribution, by which two users, who share no secret information initially: 1) exchange a random quantum transmission, consisting of very faint flashes of polarized light; 2) by subsequent public discussion of the sent and received versions of this transmission estimate the extent of eavesdropping that might have taken place on it, and finally 3) if this estimate is small enough, distill from the sent and received versions a smaller body of shared random information, which is certifiably secret in the sense that any third party's expected information on it is an exponentially small fraction of one bit. Because the system depends on the uncertainty principle of quantum physics, instead of usual mathematical assumptions such as the difficulty of factoring, it remains secure against an adversary with unlimited computing power. A preliminary version of this paper was presented at Eurocrypt '90, May 21 ...

### Citations

656 |
Quantum cryptography: Public-key distribution and coin tossing
- Bennett, Brassard
- 1984
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ution channel (whose implementation is the object of the current paper) and Brassard designed the somewhat less realistic quantum coin-tossing protocol (which can be used to implement bit commitment) =-=[2, 3]-=-. Quantum cryptography was also picked up by other researchers. For instance, Cr'epeau and Kilian showed how the quantum channel could be used in principle (although not in practice) to implement obli... |

358 |
New hash functions and their use in authentication and set equality
- Wegman, Carter
- 1981
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...is crucial property of the public channel can be implemented in practice either by using an inherently unjammable public channel or by using an information--theoretically secure authentication scheme =-=[26]-=- to certify that the public messages have not been altered in transit. In the latter case, Alice and Bob need to have a modest amount of shared secret information beforehand to serve as an authenticat... |

252 |
Quantum cryptography based on Bell’s theorem,” Phys
- Ekert
- 1991
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... leak information on both channels), zero-knowledge protocols, and secure two-party computation [17, 16]. More recently, Ekert proposed an alternative 2 approach to implement quantum key distribution =-=[19]-=- (making use of EPR and Bell's theorem), but a simplified --- and no less secure --- version of his scheme is shown in [10] to be equivalent to the idealized quantum key distribution protocol original... |

200 |
Privacy amplification by public discussion
- Bennett, Brassard, et al.
- 1988
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...l, see chapter 6 of [13].) We first review the original quantum key distribution protocol of [3], which illustrates the method most plainly. Then, we describe subsequent modifications of the protocol =-=[11, 12, 4]-=-, which give it the ability, necessary in practice, to function despite partial information leakage to the eavesdropper and partial corruption of the quantum transmissions by noise. In Section 3, we d... |

187 | How to Recycle Random Bits
- Impagliazzo, Zuckerman
- 1989
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...a fair coin toss. In this case, Eve 8 In more detail, it is shown in [9], by arguments similar to those used in the context of quasiperfect pseudorandom number generation by Impagliazzo and Zuckerman =-=[21]-=-, that the property of a distribution most simply affected by privacy amplification is its Renyi or collision entropy \Gamma log 2 P x p 2 (x) which is less than the Shannon entropy except for uniform... |

112 | Achieving Oblivious Transfer Using Weakened Security Assumptions
- Crépeau, Kilian
- 1988
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...practice) to implement oblivious transfer in a strong way (Wiesner's original multiplexing channel could leak information on both channels), zero-knowledge protocols, and secure two-party computation =-=[17, 16]-=-. More recently, Ekert proposed an alternative 2 approach to implement quantum key distribution [19] (making use of EPR and Bell's theorem), but a simplified --- and no less secure --- version of his ... |

90 |
Quantum Cryptography without Bell’s Theorem
- Bennett, Brassard, et al.
- 1992
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ert proposed an alternative 2 approach to implement quantum key distribution [19] (making use of EPR and Bell's theorem), but a simplified --- and no less secure --- version of his scheme is shown in =-=[10]-=- to be equivalent to the idealized quantum key distribution protocol originally put forward by Bennett and Brassard in 1984 [3]. Let us also mention that Bennett, Brassard, and Cr'epeau have developed... |

80 | Practical Quantum Oblivious Transfer
- Bennett, Brassard, et al.
- 1992
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...by Bennett and Brassard in 1984 [3]. Let us also mention that Bennett, Brassard, and Cr'epeau have developed practical quantum protocols to achieve oblivious transfer, bit commitment and coin-tossing =-=[8]-=-. See also [14]. The principle of quantum cryptography has been described in major popular magazines such as Scientific American [25], The Economist [20], New Scientist [18] and Science News [23]. In ... |

53 |
Quantum Cryptography, or Unforgeable Subway Tokens
- Bennett, Brassard, et al.
- 1983
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... Rico in October 1979. Following their discussion of Wiesner's idea, they discovered how to incorporate the (almost new at the time) notion of public key cryptography, resulting in a Crypto '82 paper =-=[7]-=-. This brought Wiesner's paper back to life, and it was subsequently published in Sigact News [27], together with a selection of papers from the earlier Crypto '81 workshop. Initially, quantum cryptog... |

49 |
Cryptanalysis: A Survey of Recent Results
- Brickell, Odlyzko
- 1988
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... survey of recent (1988) results in cryptanalysis with these words: "If such systems [quantum cryptography] become feasible, the cryptanalytic tools discussed here [in their paper] will be of no =-=use" [15]-=-. In this paper, we report on the first experimental quantum key distribution channel ever designed and actually put together. Section 2 provides background information on quantum cryptography. (For f... |

38 | Quantum Bit Commitment and Coin Tossing Protocols
- Brassard, Crépeau
- 1991
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... Brassard in 1984 [3]. Let us also mention that Bennett, Brassard, and Cr'epeau have developed practical quantum protocols to achieve oblivious transfer, bit commitment and coin-tossing [8]. See also =-=[14]-=-. The principle of quantum cryptography has been described in major popular magazines such as Scientific American [25], The Economist [20], New Scientist [18] and Science News [23]. In New Scientist ,... |

36 |
The Dawn of a New Era for Quantum Cryptography: The Experimental Prototype is Working
- Bennett, Brassard
- 1989
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...was visiting IBM Research. yy Physics Department, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90024, USA. 1 Introduction and History Quantum cryptography has entered the experimental era =-=[5]-=-. The first convincingly successful quantum exchange took place in October 1989. After a short historical review of quantum cryptography, we report on the new apparatus and the latest results obtained... |

29 | Modern Cryptology: A Tutorial - Brassard - 1988 |

21 | Correct and Private Reductions among Oblivious Transfers
- Crépeau
- 1990
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...practice) to implement oblivious transfer in a strong way (Wiesner's original multiplexing channel could leak information on both channels), zero-knowledge protocols, and secure two-party computation =-=[17, 16]-=-. More recently, Ekert proposed an alternative 2 approach to implement quantum key distribution [19] (making use of EPR and Bell's theorem), but a simplified --- and no less secure --- version of his ... |

18 |
How to Reduce Your Enemy's Information
- Bennett, Brassard, et al.
- 1986
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...l, see chapter 6 of [13].) We first review the original quantum key distribution protocol of [3], which illustrates the method most plainly. Then, we describe subsequent modifications of the protocol =-=[11, 12, 4]-=-, which give it the ability, necessary in practice, to function despite partial information leakage to the eavesdropper and partial corruption of the quantum transmissions by noise. In Section 3, we d... |

16 |
An Update on Quantum Cryptography
- Bennett, Brassard
- 1984
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ution channel (whose implementation is the object of the current paper) and Brassard designed the somewhat less realistic quantum coin-tossing protocol (which can be used to implement bit commitment) =-=[2, 3]-=-. Quantum cryptography was also picked up by other researchers. For instance, Cr'epeau and Kilian showed how the quantum channel could be used in principle (although not in practice) to implement obli... |

12 |
Quantum Public-Key Distribution System
- Bennett, Brassard
- 1985
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...l, see chapter 6 of [13].) We first review the original quantum key distribution protocol of [3], which illustrates the method most plainly. Then, we describe subsequent modifications of the protocol =-=[11, 12, 4]-=-, which give it the ability, necessary in practice, to function despite partial information leakage to the eavesdropper and partial corruption of the quantum transmissions by noise. In Section 3, we d... |

10 |
Quantum Cryptography II: How to Re-Use a One-Time Pad Safely Even if P=NP, unpublished manuscript
- Bennett, Brassard, et al.
- 1982
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...hould be said that half of Wiesner's original paper dealt precisely with the use of quantum physics for the transmission of information). This lead initially to the self-winding reusable one-time pad =-=[6]-=- which was still not very practical. Later, Bennett thought of the quantum key distribution channel (whose implementation is the object of the current paper) and Brassard designed the somewhat less re... |

5 |
Privacy amplification against probabilistic information, preprint
- Bennett, Brassard, et al.
- 1993
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...cterized by a nonuniform probability distribution p(x) in which candidates disagreeing with some of Eve's Breidbart measurements receive correspondingly less weight, but are not excluded outright. In =-=[9]-=- it is shown that such a nonuniform distribution of candidates resists privacy amplification no better than a set of 1= P x p 2 (x) equally weighted candidates, and therefore that k bits known with 85... |

3 |
D'etection et correction d'erreurs en cryptographie", Masters Thesis, D'epartement d'informatique et de recherche op'erationnelle, Universit'e de
- Robert
- 1985
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...s, which we are currently developing, have a higher yield of shared secret key at the same levels of noise and leakage. Further details on preliminary versions of the current protocol may be found in =-=[4, 11, 24, 12]-=-. Once the quantum transmission has been completed (with very dim light pulses used instead of single photons, as discussed in (2) above), the first task is for Alice and Bob to exchange public messag... |

3 |
Conjugate coding", manuscript written circa 1970, unpublished until it appeared
- Wiesner
- 1983
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...porate the (almost new at the time) notion of public key cryptography, resulting in a Crypto '82 paper [7]. This brought Wiesner's paper back to life, and it was subsequently published in Sigact News =-=[27]-=-, together with a selection of papers from the earlier Crypto '81 workshop. Initially, quantum cryptography was thought of by everyone (including ourselves) mostly as a work of science-fiction because... |

2 |
Conjugal secrets --- The untappable quantum telephone
- Gottlieb
- 1989
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...vious transfer, bit commitment and coin-tossing [8]. See also [14]. The principle of quantum cryptography has been described in major popular magazines such as Scientific American [25], The Economist =-=[20], New-=- Scientist [18] and Science News [23]. In New Scientist , Deutsch wrote that "Alan Turing's theoretical model is the basis of all computers. Now, for the first time, its capabilities have been ex... |

2 |
Bits of uncertainty: Quantum security
- Peterson
- 1990
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ssing [8]. See also [14]. The principle of quantum cryptography has been described in major popular magazines such as Scientific American [25], The Economist [20], New Scientist [18] and Science News =-=[23]. In New S-=-cientist , Deutsch wrote that "Alan Turing's theoretical model is the basis of all computers. Now, for the first time, its capabilities have been exceeded " [by the quantum cryptography appa... |

2 |
Quantum cryptography
- Wallich
- 1989
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...cols to achieve oblivious transfer, bit commitment and coin-tossing [8]. See also [14]. The principle of quantum cryptography has been described in major popular magazines such as Scientific American =-=[25], The-=- Economist [20], New Scientist [18] and Science News [23]. In New Scientist , Deutsch wrote that "Alan Turing's theoretical model is the basis of all computers. Now, for the first time, its capab... |

1 |
Goutier and J.--J. Quisquater, "Secure implementation of identification systems
- Bengio, Brassard, et al.
- 1991
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...pper. The assumption that the public messages cannot be corrupted by Eve is necessary, because otherwise it is clear that Eve could sit between Alice and Bob and impersonate each of them to the other =-=[1]-=-. As a result, Eve would end up with a string shared with Alice and another one shared with Bob, whereas Alice and Bob would be none the wiser. This crucial property of the public channel can be imple... |

1 |
Quantum communication thwarts eavesdroppers", New Scientist
- Deutsch
- 1989
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...commitment and coin-tossing [8]. See also [14]. The principle of quantum cryptography has been described in major popular magazines such as Scientific American [25], The Economist [20], New Scientist =-=[18] and Scien-=-ce News [23]. In New Scientist , Deutsch wrote that "Alan Turing's theoretical model is the basis of all computers. Now, for the first time, its capabilities have been exceeded " [by the qua... |

1 |
personal communication
- L'eger
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...s standard deviation, in order to apply privacy amplification conservatively as if Big Brother had obtained 5 standard-deviation more bits than expected. In order to calculate this standard deviation =-=[22]-=-, let k denote the (unknown) number of pulses subjected to intercept/resend, let t denote the (observed) 9 number of errors, and let ` denote the (unknown) number of bits leaked to Big Brother under t... |