## A Meta-Method for Formal Method Integration (1997)

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Venue: | In Proc. Formal Methods Europe 1997, LNCS 1313 |

Citations: | 27 - 15 self |

### BibTeX

@INPROCEEDINGS{Paige97ameta-method,

author = {Richard F. Paige},

title = {A Meta-Method for Formal Method Integration},

booktitle = {In Proc. Formal Methods Europe 1997, LNCS 1313},

year = {1997},

pages = {473--494},

publisher = {Springer-Verlag}

}

### Years of Citing Articles

### OpenURL

### Abstract

We describe a meta-method for formal method integration [Pai97]. The approach is applied to combining formal methods with other formal and semiformal methods. We discuss the theory behind formal method integration, present two example combinations, and use an integrated method in solving a small problem.

### Citations

474 |
Programming from Specifications
- MORGAN
- 1990
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...set of languages with translations defined between them. It is depicted in Fig. 1. The predicate notation is from [Heh93]; Z is from [Spi89]; specification statements (i.e., w : [pre; post]) are from =-=[Mor94]-=-; CSP is from [Hoa85]; and the two Larch languages are from [GuH93]. The remaining semiformal notations are from SA/SD [DeM79, YoC79], SADT [MaM88], and Coad-Yourdon object oriented predicates w : [ p... |

309 | Larch: languages and tools for formal specification
- Guttag, Horning
- 1993
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...cted in Fig. 1. The predicate notation is from [Heh93]; Z is from [Spi89]; specification statements (i.e., w : [pre; post]) are from [Mor94]; CSP is from [Hoa85]; and the two Larch languages are from =-=[GuH93]-=-. The remaining semiformal notations are from SA/SD [DeM79, YoC79], SADT [MaM88], and Coad-Yourdon object oriented predicates w : [ pre, post ] Larch LSL Larch LCL Z pseudocode OOA/D notations SA/SD n... |

304 | Structured Analysis and System Specification - DeMarco - 1979 |

119 | Conjunction as Composition
- Zave, Jackson
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...tors, by use of shared state or shared names, or in other ways. We supply some examples later. Heterogeneous notations are useful for a number of reasons: for producing simpler speci cation languages =-=[ZaJ93]-=-; for writing simpler speci cations than might be produced using a single language [ZaM93]; for ease of expression [BoH94]; and because they have been proven to be successful in practice [ZaJ95, SFD92... |

118 | Software Requirements and Specifications - Jackson - 1995 |

112 |
The Z Notation: A Reference
- Spivey
- 1998
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ed formal methods are de ned. The basis in this paper consists of a set of languages with translations de ned between them. It is depicted in Fig. 1. The predicate notation is from [Heh93]; Z is from =-=[Spi89]-=-; speci cation statements (i.e., w :[pre; post]) are from [Mor94]; CSP is from [Hoa85]; and the two Larch languages are from [GuH93]. The remaining semiformal notations are from SA/SD [DeM79, YoC79], ... |

104 |
A Practical Theory of Programming
- Hehner
- 1993
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...n on which integrated formal methods are de ned. The basis in this paper consists of a set of languages with translations de ned between them. It is depicted in Fig. 1. The predicate notation is from =-=[Heh93]-=-; Z is from [Spi89]; speci cation statements (i.e., w :[pre; post]) are from [Mor94]; CSP is from [Hoa85]; and the two Larch languages are from [GuH93]. The remaining semiformal notations are from SA/... |

91 | Ten commandments of formal methods
- Bovven, Hinchey
- 1995
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... useful for a number of reasons: for producing simpler speci cation languages [ZaJ93]; for writing simpler speci cations than might be produced using a single language [ZaM93]; for ease of expression =-=[BoH94]-=-; and because they have been proven to be successful in practice [ZaJ95, SFD92, Hal96]. The formal meaning of a heterogeneous speci cation is given by de ning the semantics of all the notation composi... |

61 | Controlling Software Projects: management, measurement and estimation - Marco - 1982 |

57 |
Using formal methods to develop an ATC information system
- Hall
- 1996
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ng with this complexity. Furthermore, method integration has been used and has proved to be useful in practice in various forms, e.g., at Rolls-Royce [Hil91], BT [SFD92], Westinghouse [Ham94], Praxis =-=[Hal96]-=-, and elsewhere. 1.2 Heterogeneous notations and speci cations A notation is an important part of any method; it is used to describe the concrete products of the technique. Notations play akey role in... |

51 |
Integrated Structured Analysis and Formal Specification Techniques
- Semmens, France, et al.
- 1992
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ovides systematic techniques for dealing with this complexity. Furthermore, method integration has been used and has proved to be useful in practice in various forms, e.g., at Rolls-Royce [Hil91], BT =-=[SFD92]-=-, Westinghouse [Ham94], Praxis [Hal96], and elsewhere. 1.2 Heterogeneous notations and speci cations A notation is an important part of any method; it is used to describe the concrete products of the ... |

39 | Structured Analysis and System Speci cation - DeMarco - 1988 |

37 |
Programming from Speci cations
- Morgan
- 1990
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... a set of languages with translations de ned between them. It is depicted in Fig. 1. The predicate notation is from [Heh93]; Z is from [Spi89]; speci cation statements (i.e., w :[pre; post]) are from =-=[Mor94]-=-; CSP is from [Hoa85]; and the two Larch languages are from [GuH93]. The remaining semiformal notations are from SA/SD [DeM79, YoC79], SADT [MaM88], and Coad-Yourdon object orientedspredicates w : [ p... |

34 |
Refinement of StateBased Concurrent Systems
- Woodcook, Morgan
- 1990
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...cannot be translated under maintenance of interpretation using this function. We can add CSP [Hoa85] to the heterogeneous basis by translating from CSP to action systems [Bac90] following the work of =-=[WoM91]-=-. An action system consists of a state, an initialization, and a number of labelled guarded commands on the state (a labelled guarded command is called an action). An example is shown below. var n ffl... |

23 |
Larch: Languages and Tools for Formal Speci cation
- Guttag, Horning, et al.
- 1993
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...picted in Fig. 1. The predicate notation is from [Heh93]; Z is from [Spi89]; speci cation statements (i.e., w :[pre; post]) are from [Mor94]; CSP is from [Hoa85]; and the two Larch languages are from =-=[GuH93]-=-. The remaining semiformal notations are from SA/SD [DeM79, YoC79], SADT [MaM88], and Coad-Yourdon object orientedspredicates w : [ pre, post ] Larch LCL Z pseudocode SA/SD OOA/D notations notations S... |

21 |
The SAZ project: Integrating SSADM and Z
- Polack, Whiston, et al.
- 1993
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...lized) invasive steps are de ned. Examples of relationships include the following. Linking of method steps, by de ning a translation between notations of di erent methods, e.g., as in the SAZ Project =-=[PWM93]-=-. Replacement of entire steps in a base method by (generalized) steps of an invasive method. The invariant in such a replacement is that the steps being added must do at least the tasks of the steps t... |

20 |
A lattice-theoretical basis for a specification language
- Back, Wright
- 1989
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...[Pai97] describes how to translate a specification statement to a predicate that includes references to the time variables t and t 0 . The predicative notation cannot represent angelic specifications =-=[BaV89]-=- and terminating but otherwise arbitrary behaviour (i.e., havoc [Mor94]), and so SSToPred cannot translate these specifications and maintain their interpretation. The Z schema Op b = [ \DeltaS ; i ? :... |

18 |
the refinement calculus
- unknown authors
- 1990
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ecifications and maintain their interpretation. The Z schema Op b = [ \DeltaS ; i ? : I ; o! : O j pred ] can be mapped into a specification statement using the function ZToSS . This result is due to =-=[Kin90]-=-. ZToSS (Op) b = w : [ (9 w 0 : T j inv ffl pred); pred ] (The \Delta-schema denotes those state elements Op can change. The inputs to the operation are denoted by i ?, and the outputs by o!. inv is a... |

17 | T.: "Structured analysis for requirements definition - Schoman, Ross - 1977 |

16 | Formal Method Integration via Heterogeneous Notations - Paige - 1997 |

16 |
Adding Specification Constructors to the Refinement Calculus
- Ward
- 1993
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...y using the basic translations. 4.2 Refinement over conjunction and disjunction We describe refinement rules for application over conjunction and disjunction. More rules are described in [Pai97]; see =-=[War93]-=- for an alternative approach to combining specification statements with Z combinators. In the following, let S ; S 0 and T be specification statements, and P and Q be predicates. Rule 4.9 If S v T the... |

14 |
Producing Z Specifications from Object-Oriented Analysis
- Hammond
- 1994
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...niques for dealing with this complexity. Furthermore, method integration has been used and has proved to be useful in practice in various forms, e.g., at Rolls-Royce [Hil91], BT [SFD92], Westinghouse =-=[Ham94]-=-, Praxis [Hal96], and elsewhere. 1.2 Heterogeneous notations and specifications A notation is an important part of any method; it is used to describe the concrete products of the technique. Notations ... |

12 | Software development methods in practice - Hill - 1991 |

9 | Structured Analysis for Requirements De nition - Schoman - 1977 |

8 |
Refinement calculus II: parallel and reactive programs
- Back
- 1990
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ating and establishing false) cannot be translated under maintenance of interpretation using this function. We can add CSP [Hoa85] to the heterogeneous basis by translating from CSP to action systems =-=[Bac90]-=- following the work of [WoM91]. An action system consists of a state, an initialization, and a number of labelled guarded commands on the state (a labelled guarded command is called an action). An exa... |

7 | Where do operations come from? An approach to multiparadigm specification - Zave, Jackson - 1996 |

6 | Unintrusive ways to integrate formal specifications in practice
- Wing, Zaremski
- 1992
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...e heterogeneous notations; effectively, notations are added to a method, and the method steps are generalized to using the new notations. An example of a generalization integration is demonstrated in =-=[WiZ92]-=-, where SA is combined with Larch. -- Relation. Relation of method steps can follow generalization. Relationships between the (generalized) base steps and (generalized) invasive steps are defined. Exa... |

5 | A formal specification of some important 5ESS features
- Zave, Mataga
- 1993
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...r. Heterogeneous notations are useful for a number of reasons: for producing simpler specification languages [ZaJ93]; for writing simpler specifications than might be produced using a single language =-=[ZaM93]-=-; for ease of expression [BoH94]; and because they have been proven to be successful in practice [ZaJ95, SFD92, Hal96]. The formal meaning of a heterogeneous specification is given by defining the sem... |

4 |
Producing Z speci cations from object-oriented analysis
- Hammond
- 1994
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...niques for dealing with this complexity. Furthermore, method integration has been used and has proved to be useful in practice in various forms, e.g., at Rolls-Royce [Hil91], BT [SFD92], Westinghouse =-=[Ham94]-=-, Praxis [Hal96], and elsewhere. 1.2 Heterogeneous notations and speci cations A notation is an important part of any method; it is used to describe the concrete products of the technique. Notations p... |

4 | Software Requirements and Speci cations - Jackson - 1995 |

4 | Towards an integrated combination of SA and VDM
- Larsen, Katwijk, et al.
- 1991
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ps being supplemented. ffl Parallel use of steps, by describing relationships that interleave the use of two or more separate sets of method steps. An example of this kind of relation is suggested in =-=[LKP91]-=-. 5. Guidance to the user. Hints, examples, and suggestions on how the integrated method can be used is provided. The meta-method does not provide a formal (meta-) model of each method (e.g., as is do... |

3 | Svdm: An integrated combination of sa and vdm
- Larsen, Katwijk, et al.
- 1991
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... steps being supplemented. Parallel use of steps, by describing relationships that interleave the use of two or more separate sets of method steps. An example of this kind of relation is suggested in =-=[LKP91]-=-. 5. Guidance to the user. Hints, examples, and suggestions on how the integrated method can be used is provided. The meta-method does not provide a formal (meta-) model of each method (e.g., as is do... |

3 |
Adding speci cation constructors to the re nement calculus
- Ward
- 1993
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... by using the basic translations. 4.2 Re nement over conjunction and disjunction We describe re nement rules for application over conjunction and disjunction. More rules are described in [Pai97]; see =-=[War93]-=- for an alternative approach to combining speci cation statements with Z combinators. In the following, let S ; S 0 and T be speci cation statements, and P and Q be predicates. Rule 4.9 If S v T then ... |

3 |
Unintrusive ways to integrate formal speci cations in practice
- Wing, Zaremski
- 1991
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...se heterogeneous notations; e ectively, notations are added to a method, and the method steps are generalized to using the new notations. An example of a generalization integration is demonstrated in =-=[WiZ92]-=-, where SA is combined with Larch. { Relation. Relation of method steps can follow generalization. Relationships between the (generalized) base steps and (generalized) invasive steps are de ned. Examp... |

3 |
A formal speci cation of some important 5ESS features
- Zave, Mataga
- 1993
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ter. Heterogeneous notations are useful for a number of reasons: for producing simpler speci cation languages [ZaJ93]; for writing simpler speci cations than might be produced using a single language =-=[ZaM93]-=-; for ease of expression [BoH94]; and because they have been proven to be successful in practice [ZaJ95, SFD92, Hal96]. The formal meaning of a heterogeneous speci cation is given by de ning the seman... |

2 |
the re nement calculus
- unknown authors
- 1990
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...anslate these speci cations and maintain their interpretation. TheZschema Op b= [ S; i? :I ; o! :O j pred ] can be mapped into a speci cation statement using the function ZToSS. This result is due to =-=[Kin90]-=-. ZToSS(Op) b= w :[(9w 0 : T j inv pred); pred ] (The -schema denotes those state elements Op can change. The inputs to the operation are denoted by i?, and the outputs by o!. inv is a state invariant... |

2 |
Re nement of state-based concurrent systems
- Woodcock, Morgan
- 1990
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...cannot be translated under maintenance of interpretation using this function.sWe can add CSP [Hoa85] to the heterogeneous basis by translating from CSP to action systems [Bac90] following the work of =-=[WoM91]-=-. An action system consists of a state, an initialization, and a number of labelled guarded commands on the state (a labelled guarded command is called an action). An example is shown below. var n ini... |

1 |
Re nement calculus II: parallel and reactive programs
- Back
- 1990
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ating and establishing false) cannot be translated under maintenance of interpretation using this function.sWe can add CSP [Hoa85] to the heterogeneous basis by translating from CSP to action systems =-=[Bac90]-=- following the work of [WoM91]. An action system consists of a state, an initialization, and a number of labelled guarded commands on the state (a labelled guarded command is called an action). An exa... |

1 |
A Lattice-Theoretical Basis for a Speci cation Language
- Back, Wright
- 1989
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...) [Pai97] describes how to translate a speci cation statement to a predicate that includes references to the time variables t and t 0 . The predicative notation cannot represent angelic speci cations =-=[BaV89]-=- and terminating but otherwise arbitrary behaviour (i.e., havoc [Mor94]), and so SSToPred cannot translate these speci cations and maintain their interpretation. TheZschema Op b= [ S; i? :I ; o! :O j ... |