## Scheduling a Steel Plant with Timed Automata (1999)

Venue: | In Sixth International Conference on Real-Time Computing Systems and Applications (RTCSA’99). IEEE Computer |

Citations: | 57 - 5 self |

### BibTeX

@INPROCEEDINGS{Fehnker99schedulinga,

author = {Ansgar Fehnker},

title = {Scheduling a Steel Plant with Timed Automata},

booktitle = {In Sixth International Conference on Real-Time Computing Systems and Applications (RTCSA’99). IEEE Computer},

year = {1999},

pages = {280--286},

publisher = {Society Press}

}

### Years of Citing Articles

### OpenURL

### Abstract

Scheduling in an environment with constraints of many different types is known to be a hard problem. We tackle this problem for an integrated steel plant in Ghent, Belgium, using UPPAAL, a model checker for networks of timed automata. We show how to translate schedulability to reachability, enabling us to use UPPAAL's model checking algorithms. 1. Introduction This report is a result of the participation of CSI Nijmegen in the European Union Esprit long term research project Verification of Hybrid Systems (http://wwwverimag. imag.fr//VHS/). The Esprit program was set up to improve the take-up of modern information technologies in industry. The VHS project in particular is meant to stimulate research in the area of hybrid systems. These systems typically consist of digital components in a continuous environment. The correct behavior depends strongly on the interaction between the digital components, say the controller, and the controlled process. Hybrid systems are important in numero...

### Citations

1966 | Timed Automata
- Alur
- 1999
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... can even be dicult to decide whether a feasible schedule exists. Timed Automata (TA) have proven to be a useful formalism to model and verify real-time systems. Timed Automata, due to Alur and Dill [=-=AD94-=-], are nite state automata with clock variables. This formalism can be used to model real-time requirements of systems in a natural way. In recent years several tools for automatic 2 PLANT DESCRIPTION... |

491 | UPPAAL in a nutshell
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- 1997
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Citation Context ... only allowed to enter a certain location if a corresponding bit is zero. It then sets the bit to one and releases it as soon as it leaves the location. For a more detailed introduction to Uppaal see =-=[LPY97-=-]. 3.1 Overview In the model we distinguish between batches and the plant. The state of a batch is dened by the position of the load in the plant and the position within the recipe and the time that h... |

210 |
Kronos: A Verification Tool for Real-time Systems
- Yovine
- 1997
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Citation Context ...sed to model real-time requirements of systems in a natural way. In recent years several tools for automatic model checking based on timed automata have become available, such as UPPAAL[9] and KRONOS =-=[14]-=-. Several case studies have continuous machine casting place storage holding place convertor vessel #2 machine#1 track#2 machine#2 machine#3 overhead cranes machine#4 machine#5 track#1 crane#2 crane#1... |

163 |
A computational study of the job-shop scheduling problem
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- 1991
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125 |
An algorithm for solving the job-shop problem
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- 1989
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Citation Context ...tCA:=0tCA:=0tCA:=0tCA:=0 tCA:=0 tCA:=0 tCA:=0 tCA:=0 tCA:=0 tCA:=0 tCA:=0 tCA:=0 tCA>=1 tCA>=1 tCA>=1 tCA>=1 tCA>=1tCA>=1tCA>=1tCA>=1tCA>=1 tCA>=1 tCA>=1 tCA>=1 tCA>=1 tCA>=1 tCA>=1 tCA>=1 tCA>=1 cpos=-=[5]-=-==0 cpos[5]==0 cpos[5]==0 cpos[5]==0 cpos[5]==0cpos[5]==0cpos[5]==0cpos[5]==0cpos[5]==0 cpos[5]==0 cpos[5]==0 cpos[5]==0 cpos[5]==0 cpos[5]==0 cpos[5]==0 cpos[5]==0 cpos[5]==0 cpos[5]:=1 cpos[5]:=1 cp... |

52 | Guided synthesis of control programs using uppaal
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- 2000
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Citation Context ...ters the casting machine. This schedule is of course not optimal and modest variations to this model made verification even impossible, due to memory overflow. Th. Hune, K.G. Larsen and P. Pettersson =-=[7]-=- showed for a physical model of the SIDMAR plant how to synthesize control programs from diagnostic traces. A similar approach to the one presented in this paper was used by P. Niebert and S. Yovine i... |

49 |
A computational study of local search algorithms for job shop scheduling
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- 1994
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Citation Context ...eduling problem. In jobshop scheduling theory one supposes that there are a number of jobs and machines. A job is usually dened as a sequence of operations which have to be executed in a given order [=-=AvLLU94]-=-. Each of these operations is performed by a particular machine for a given period of time. It is also assumed that each machine can perform only one operation at the same time. Sometimes it is also a... |

43 | Automatic Verification of Real-Time Communicating Systems By ConstraintSolving
- Yi, Pettersson, et al.
- 1994
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Citation Context ...a scheduling problem. We can add topological and timing constraints easily without being forced to change the underlying algorithms. The model checking algorithm as it is implemented in UPPAAL so far =-=[13]-=- does not allow to determine the minimal makespan straightforward, but forces us to determine for several deadlines if a feasible schedule exists. We will investigate whether it is possible to incorpo... |

37 |
Sequencing and scheduling: An Introduction to the
- French
- 1982
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Citation Context ...rform only one operation at the same time. Sometimes it is also assumed that each job can perform a particular operation only once or that machines are not allowed to be idle in between two operation =-=[Fre82-=-]. The problem is to schedule the operations in a way that it minimizes the time it takes to complete all jobs. There are many ecient and fast local search algorithms like simulated annealing or tabu ... |

14 |
Generalized job shop scheduling : complexity and local search
- Vaessens
- 1995
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Citation Context ...h improve over currently used ad hoc schedules. The approach presented in this paper is useful for constraint solving, i.e. to determine for a given deadline, whether a feasible schedule exist or not =-=[12]-=-. The advantage of our approach is that we can use well known algorithms and a powerful formalism to model a scheduling problem. We can add topological and timing constraints easily without being forc... |

6 |
Description of VHS case study 1 "Experimental Batch Plant
- Kowalewski
- 1998
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Citation Context ...hesize control programs from diagnostic traces. A similar approach to the one presented in this paper was used by P. Niebert and S. Yovine in [10]. They determined for Case Study 1 of the VHS project =-=[8]-=- a schedule for an experimental batch plant. Using algorithmic approaches from real time verification, they were able to compute optimal schedules, which improve over currently used ad hoc schedules. ... |

6 | Computing optimal operation schemes for multi batch operation of chemical plants. VHS deliverable
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Citation Context ...howed for a physical model of the SIDMAR plant how to synthesize control programs from diagnostic traces. A similar approach to the one presented in this paper was used by P. Niebert and S. Yovine in =-=[10]-=-. They determined for Case Study 1 of the VHS project [8] a schedule for an experimental batch plant. Using algorithmic approaches from real time verification, they were able to compute optimal schedu... |

2 |
Report for VHS: Timed Petri Net Model of Steel Plant at SIDMAR
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- 1999
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Citation Context ...! cIVdown! cIVdown! cIVdown! cIVdown! cIVdown! B3T2off? B3T2off? B3T2off? B3T2off? B3T2off?B3T2off?B3T2off?B3T2off?B3T2off? B3T2off? B3T2off? B3T2off? B3T2off? B3T2off? B3T2off? B3T2off? B3T2off? posI=-=[4]-=-==0 posI[4]==0 posI[4]==0 posI[4]==0 posI[4]==0posI[4]==0posI[4]==0posI[4]==0posI[4]==0 posI[4]==0 posI[4]==0 posI[4]==0 posI[4]==0 posI[4]==0 posI[4]==0 posI[4]==0 posI[4]==0 posI[4]:=1 posI[4]:=1 po... |

1 |
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Citation Context ...lable nondeterminism in the model. Doing this the model just describes a subset of the behavior of the plant. Our model is based on two descriptions; a Petri net model by Ren Boel en Geert Stremersch =-=[BS98-=-] and a textual description from SIDMAR [SID98]. We will try to use the same terminology. In this paper a job will be called batch, the order of operations is dened by a recipe and most operations wil... |

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Citation Context ... the model just describes a subset of the behavior of the plant. Our model is based on two descriptions; a Petri net model by Ren Boel en Geert Stremersch [BS98] and a textual description from SIDMAR =-=[SID98-=-]. We will try to use the same terminology. In this paper a job will be called batch, the order of operations is dened by a recipe and most operations will be called treatments. In the next section a ... |

1 |
Automatic Verication of Real-time Communicating Systems by Constraint Solving
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Citation Context ...s the casting machine. This schedule is of course not optimal, and modest variations to this model made verication even impossible. In Uppaal a forward reachability algorithms is implemented [LPY97],[=-=YPD93]-=-. We also did some premature experiments with backward analysis techniques which seem to be promising. The most restricting constraints in this case study is the requirement that the casting machine i... |

1 | Description of VHS case study 1 - Kowalewski - 1998 |