## Qualitative and Quantitative Car Tracking from a Range Image Sequence (1998)

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Venue: | In Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition |

Citations: | 30 - 4 self |

### BibTeX

@INPROCEEDINGS{Zhao98qualitativeand,

author = {Liang Zhao and Chuck Thorpe},

title = {Qualitative and Quantitative Car Tracking from a Range Image Sequence},

booktitle = {In Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition},

year = {1998},

pages = {496--501}

}

### Years of Citing Articles

### OpenURL

### Abstract

In this paper, we present a car tracking system which provides quantitative and qualitative motion estimates of the tracked car simultaneously from a moving observer. First, we construct three motion models (constant velocity, constant acceleration, and turning) to describe the qualitative motion of a moving car. Then the models are incorporated into the Extended Kalman Filters to perform quantitative tracking. Finally, we develop an Extended Interacting Multiple Model (EIMM) algorithm to manage the switching between models and to output both qualitative and quantitative motion estimates of the tracked car. Accurate motion modeling and efficient model management result in a high performance tracking system. The experimental results on simulated and real data demonstrate that our tracking system is reliable and robust, and runs in real-time. The multiple motion representations make the system useful in various autonomous driving tasks. 1 Introduction Vehicle tracking is an important a...

### Citations

161 |
Stochastic Models
- Maybeck
- 1979
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ve kinematic modes: constant velocity mode, constant acceleration mode, and turning mode. Then, we derive the motion model of each mode and incorporate each model into an Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) =-=[10]-=- to track vehicles separately. The advantage of employing multiple motion models for tracking is that we can detect and predict the car maneuver as a separate event, and we can obtain more accurate mo... |

95 | A real-time computer vision system for measure traffic parameters
- Beymer, McLauchlan, et al.
- 1997
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...st work that incorporates both quantitative and qualitative motion estimates into a single algorithm. Currently, most research has been focused on how to quantitatively estimate the motion parameters =-=[2, 3, 4]-=-. On the other hand, qualitative approaches [5, 6] have been investigated in the context where numerical motion estimates are unavailable, unstable, or unnecessary. Little attempt has been made to pur... |

67 |
Qualitative detection of motion by a moving observer
- Nelson
- 1991
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...tative motion estimates into a single algorithm. Currently, most research has been focused on how to quantitatively estimate the motion parameters [2, 3, 4]. On the other hand, qualitative approaches =-=[5, 6]-=- have been investigated in the context where numerical motion estimates are unavailable, unstable, or unnecessary. Little attempt has been made to pursue quantitative and qualitative tracking simultan... |

44 | The active recovery of 3D motion trajectories and their use in prediction
- Bradshaw, Reid, et al.
- 1997
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...h quantitative and qualitative senses. The Interacting Multiple Model (IMM) algorithm first proposed by Blom [11] is a superior technique for multiple model management and maneuvering target tracking =-=[12, 13]-=-. Here we extend the algorithm to output both quantitative and qualitative motion estimates, and we call the extended IMM algorithm the EIMM algorithm. Accurate motion modeling and efficient model man... |

40 |
Suspensionsâ€ť, in Fundamentals of Vehicle Dynamics, (Society of Automotive Engineers
- Gillespie
- 1992
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...resent the direction of travel (`) instead of the direction of heading (` h ) is that they are not equivalent when the car is moving at high speed. In fact ` = ` h + ffi , where ffi is the slip angle =-=[16]-=-. Since the direction of travel is more relevant to our autonomous driving task, accordingly we choose to represent the turning rate of the travel direction instead of that of heading. All variables a... |

28 |
An efficient filter for abruptly changing systems
- Blom
- 1984
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... maneuver as a separate event, and we can obtain more accurate motion interpretation in both quantitative and qualitative senses. The Interacting Multiple Model (IMM) algorithm first proposed by Blom =-=[11]-=- is a superior technique for multiple model management and maneuvering target tracking [12, 13]. Here we extend the algorithm to output both quantitative and qualitative motion estimates, and we call ... |

27 | Multiple vehicle detection and tracking in hard real-time
- Betke, Haritaoglu, et al.
- 1996
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...st work that incorporates both quantitative and qualitative motion estimates into a single algorithm. Currently, most research has been focused on how to quantitatively estimate the motion parameters =-=[2, 3, 4]-=-. On the other hand, qualitative approaches [5, 6] have been investigated in the context where numerical motion estimates are unavailable, unstable, or unnecessary. Little attempt has been made to pur... |

24 |
Colour Vision
- Thompson
- 1995
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ation has a great impact on the generality, reliability, accuracy, and efficiency of motion analysis algorithms. Both quantitative and qualitative representations as discussed by Thompson and Kearney =-=[15]-=- have advantages and disadvantages. Qualitative representation captures the significant characteristics of motion, but it has a low degree of precision. Quantitative representation, on the other hand,... |

14 |
The derivation of qualitative information in motion analysis
- FRANCOIS
- 1990
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...tative motion estimates into a single algorithm. Currently, most research has been focused on how to quantitatively estimate the motion parameters [2, 3, 4]. On the other hand, qualitative approaches =-=[5, 6]-=- have been investigated in the context where numerical motion estimates are unavailable, unstable, or unnecessary. Little attempt has been made to pursue quantitative and qualitative tracking simultan... |

13 |
IMM algorithm for tracking targets that maneuver through coordinated turns
- Watson, Blair
- 1992
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...h quantitative and qualitative senses. The Interacting Multiple Model (IMM) algorithm first proposed by Blom [11] is a superior technique for multiple model management and maneuvering target tracking =-=[12, 13]-=-. Here we extend the algorithm to output both quantitative and qualitative motion estimates, and we call the extended IMM algorithm the EIMM algorithm. Accurate motion modeling and efficient model man... |

12 |
Interactive model-based vehicle tracking
- Gardner, Lawton
- 1996
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...st work that incorporates both quantitative and qualitative motion estimates into a single algorithm. Currently, most research has been focused on how to quantitatively estimate the motion parameters =-=[2, 3, 4]-=-. On the other hand, qualitative approaches [5, 6] have been investigated in the context where numerical motion estimates are unavailable, unstable, or unnecessary. Little attempt has been made to pur... |

7 |
Surface correspondence and motion computation from a pair of range images
- Sabata, Aggarwal
- 1996
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...car tracking, and quantitative /qualitative motion estimations. The fact that we can derive depth information directly from a laser rangefinder makes it a popular tool in many motion analysis systems =-=[7, 8, 9]-=-. In this work, we use a 2D laser scanner to obtain range data which greatly simplifies the car detection procedure. Thus, in this paper, we focus on the motion analysis part. First, we classify the v... |

7 |
Coping with delays for real-time gaze control
- Sharkey, Murray
- 1993
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...thin a small area around the position predicted by the motion estimator (Figure 2(d): dotted box). This can be considered as soft gaze control, which is much simpler and faster than hard gaze control =-=[14]-=-. If there are two cars present in the area, the one nearest to the predicted position is chosen. From the car detector and tracker, the position and the heading of the tracked car are obtained and se... |

6 |
Mobile robot motion estimation from a range scan sequence
- Gonzalez, Gutierrez
- 1997
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...car tracking, and quantitative /qualitative motion estimations. The fact that we can derive depth information directly from a laser rangefinder makes it a popular tool in many motion analysis systems =-=[7, 8, 9]-=-. In this work, we use a 2D laser scanner to obtain range data which greatly simplifies the car detection procedure. Thus, in this paper, we focus on the motion analysis part. First, we classify the v... |

4 |
Object motion and structure recovery for robotic vision using scanning laser range sensors
- Smith, Nandhakumar, et al.
- 1997
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...car tracking, and quantitative /qualitative motion estimations. The fact that we can derive depth information directly from a laser rangefinder makes it a popular tool in many motion analysis systems =-=[7, 8, 9]-=-. In this work, we use a 2D laser scanner to obtain range data which greatly simplifies the car detection procedure. Thus, in this paper, we focus on the motion analysis part. First, we classify the v... |

3 |
Mixed traffic and automated highways
- Thorpe
- 1997
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...uantitative and qualitative motion estimates simultaneously from a moving platform and using a laser rangefinder. The system was developed in the context of the Automated Highway System (AHS) project =-=[1]-=- and is intended to provide accurate motion estimation, motion classification, and reliable maneuver detection. To our knowledge, this is the first work that incorporates both quantitative and qualita... |

3 |
Mixed tra c and automated highways
- Thorpe
- 1997
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...quantitative and qualitative motion estimates simultaneously from a moving platform and using a laser range nder. The system was developed in the context of the Automated Highway System (AHS) project =-=[1]-=- and is intended to provide accurate motion estimation, motion classi cation, and reliable maneuver detection. To our knowledge, this is the rst work that incorporates both quantitative and qualitativ... |

1 |
Qualitative Detection of Motion by aMoving Observer," Int
- Nelson
- 1991
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...tative motion estimates into a single algorithm. Currently, most research has been focused on how to quantitatively estimate the motion parameters [2, 3, 4]. On the other hand, qualitative approaches =-=[5, 6]-=- have been investigated in the context where numerical motion estimates are unavailable, unstable, or unnecessary. Little attempt has been made to pursue quantitative and qualitative tracking simultan... |