## Estimating the Absolute Position of a Mobile Robot Using Position Probability Grids (1996)

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Venue: | In Proceedings of the Thirteenth National Conference on Artificial Intelligence, Menlo Park |

Citations: | 175 - 50 self |

### BibTeX

@INPROCEEDINGS{Burgard96estimatingthe,

author = {Wolfram Burgard and Dieter Fox and Daniel Hennig and Timo Schmidt},

title = {Estimating the Absolute Position of a Mobile Robot Using Position Probability Grids},

booktitle = {In Proceedings of the Thirteenth National Conference on Artificial Intelligence, Menlo Park},

year = {1996},

pages = {896--901},

publisher = {AAAI, AAAI Press/MIT Press}

}

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### Abstract

In order to re-use existing models of the environment mobile robots must be able to estimate their position and orientation in such models. Most of the existing methods for position estimation are based on special purpose sensors or aim at tracking the robot's position relative to the known starting point. This paper describes the position probability grid approach to estimating the robot's absolute position and orientation in a metric model of the environment. Our method is designed to work with standard sensors and is independent of any knowledge about the starting point. It is a Bayesian approach based on certainty grids. In each cell of such a grid we store the probability that this cell refers to the current position of the robot. These probabilities are obtained by integrating the likelihoods of sensor readings over time. Results described in this paper show that our technique is able to reliably estimate the position of a robot in complex environments. Our approach has proven to...

### Citations

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344 |
fusion in certainty grids for mobile robots
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Citation Context ...the probability that this cell is occupied by an obstacle. In the past such occupancy probability maps or variants of them have been successfully used for collision avoidance [1, 2] and path planning =-=[3, 8]-=-. The power of the certainty grid technique is its mathematical foundation as well as the ability to deal with different types of sensors and the inherent uncertainty of the data provided by sensors. ... |

330 | The Vector Field Histogram–Fast Obstacle Avoidance for Mobile Robots
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Citation Context ...n each field of the grid the probability that this cell is occupied by an obstacle. In the past such occupancy probability maps or variants of them have been successfully used for collision avoidance =-=[1, 2]-=- and path planning [3, 8]. The power of the certainty grid technique is its mathematical foundation as well as the ability to deal with different types of sensors and the inherent uncertainty of the d... |

254 | Probabilistic robot navigation in partially observable environments
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Citation Context ...s a node in the topological map. This technique is augmented by certainty factors which are computed out of the likelihoods that the items mentioned above will be detected by the ultrasonic sensors. (=-=Simmons & Koenig 1995-=-) describe a similar approach to position estimation. They additionally utilize metric information coming from the wheel encoders to compute state transition probabilities. This metric information put... |

170 | Real-Time Obstacle Avoidance for Fast Mobile Robots
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DERVISH an office-navigating robot
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Citation Context ...me rather than taking the optimum match of the most recent sensing as a guess for the current position. Other researchers developed positioning techniques based on topological maps. Nourbakhsh et al. =-=[11]-=- apply Markov Models to determine the node of the topological map which contains the current position of the robot. Different nodes of the topological map are distinguished by walls, doors or hallway ... |

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Citation Context ... encoders to compute state transition probabilities. This metric information puts additional constraints on the robots location and results in more reliable position estimates. Kortenkamp and Weymoth =-=[6]-=- combine information obtained from sonar sensors and cameras using a Bayesian network to detect gateways between nodes of the topological map. The integration of sonar and vision information results i... |

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Citation Context ...the probability that this cell is occupied by an obstacle. In the past such occupancy probability maps or variants of them have been successfully used for collision avoidance [1, 2] and path planning =-=[3, 8]-=-. The power of the certainty grid technique is its mathematical foundation as well as the ability to deal with different types of sensors and the inherent uncertainty of the data provided by sensors. ... |

100 | A comparison of position estimation techniques using occupancy grids
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Citation Context ...ations of the environment. The position and orientation of the robot is calculated by maximizing the correlation between histograms of new measurements with the stored histograms. Schiele and Crowley =-=[13]-=- compare different strategies to track the robots position based on occupancy grid maps. They use two different maps: a local grid computed using the most recent sensor readings, and a global map buil... |

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Autonomous Robot Vehicles
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Citation Context ...ents. 2 Related work Various techniques for the estimation of the position of mobile vehicles by matching sensor readings against a given model of the environment have been developed in the past (see =-=[4, 5]-=- for overviews). Most of them address the problem of tracking the current position and orientation of the robot given its initial configuration. Recently, more and more probabilistic techniques are ap... |

56 | Exploration and model building in mobile robot domains
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Citation Context ...of the AAAI '94 mobile robot competition [14]. The size of this arena amounts 20 \Theta 30m 2 . Figure 7 shows the occupancy grid map of this arena constructed with the map-building tool described in =-=[16]-=-. The sonar sensor measurements were recorded during an exploration run in this arena. The trajectory of the robot and the 12 positions at which the sensors were fired are included in Figure 7. Again ... |

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The kalman filter : An introduction to concepts
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Citation Context ... by an appropriate CAD-tool. The local map is matched against the global map to produce a position and orientation estimate. This estimate is combined with the previous estimate using a Kalman filter =-=[7]-=-, where the uncertainty is represented by the width of the Gaussian distribution. Compared to the approach of Wei et al., this technique allows an integration of different measurements over time rathe... |

35 | Where am I?": Sensors and methods for autonomous mobile robot positioning - Feng, Borenstein, et al. - 1994 |

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The 1994 AAAI robot competition and exhibition
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- 1995
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Citation Context ...ities spread out over complete regions. In order to demonstrate the capability of our approach to deal with such complex situations we applied it to the arena of the AAAI '94 mobile robot competition =-=[14]-=-. The size of this arena amounts 20 \Theta 30m 2 . Figure 7 shows the occupancy grid map of this arena constructed with the map-building tool described in [16]. The sonar sensor measurements were reco... |

18 |
Puttkamer, “Keeping track of position and orientation of moving indoor systems by correlation of range-finder scans
- Weiß, Wetzler, et al.
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Citation Context ...on. Techniques based on metric or grid-based representations of the environment generally generate unimodal or Gaussian distributions representing the estimation of the robot's 3 position. Wei et al. =-=[17]-=- store angle histograms constructed out of range-finder scans taken at different locations of the environment. The position and orientation of the robot is calculated by maximizing the correlation bet... |

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Robot navigation by 3D spatial evidence grids
- Moravec, Martin
- 1994
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Citation Context ...on is a three-dimensional problem. This extension, however, does not result in any principle problems, because the certainty grid concept can easily be extended to problems with higher dimensionality =-=[10]-=-. After discussing related work Section 3 shows how to build position probability grids for the estimation of the absolute position of a mobile robot. In Section 4 we describe an application of this t... |

8 |
Where am I?" Sensors and methods for autonomous mobile robot positioning
- Feng, Borenstein, et al.
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Citation Context ... is one of the basic preconditions for the autonomy of mobile robots. The methods for position estimation can be roughly divided into two classes: relative and absolutesposition estimation techniques =-=[5]-=-. Members of the first class track the robot's relative position according to a known starting point. The problem solved by these methods is the correction of accumulated dead reckoning errors coming ... |

1 |
Probabilistic robot navigation in parially observable environments
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Citation Context ...pological map. This technique is augmented by certainty factors which are computed out of the likelihoods that the items mentioned above will be detected by the ultrasonic sensors. Simmons and Koenig =-=[15]-=- describe a similar approach to position estimation. They additionally utilize metric information coming from the wheel encoders to compute state transition probabilities. This metric information puts... |

1 |
The mobile robot Rhino. AI Magazine 16(2):31--38
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Citation Context ...odel of the robot's environment. In the past such occupancy probability maps or variants of them have been successfully used for collision avoidance (Borenstein & Koren 1990; 1991) and path planning (=-=Buhmann et al. 1995-=-; Moravec 1988). This paper issues a further application area of this technique, namely the estimation of the absolute position of a robot. The principle of our approach is to accumulate in each cell ... |