## Radiance Interpolants for Accelerated Bounded-Error Ray Tracing (1999)

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Venue: | ACM Transactions on Graphics |

Citations: | 53 - 5 self |

### BibTeX

@ARTICLE{Bala99radianceinterpolants,

author = {Kavita Bala and Julie Dorsey and Seth Teller},

title = {Radiance Interpolants for Accelerated Bounded-Error Ray Tracing},

journal = {ACM Transactions on Graphics},

year = {1999},

volume = {18},

pages = {213--256}

}

### Years of Citing Articles

### OpenURL

### Abstract

this paper, we present a system that exploits object-space, rayspace, image-space and temporal coherence to accelerate ray tracing. Our system uses per-surface interpolants to approximate radiance, while conservatively bounding error. The techniques we introduce in this paper should enhance both interactive and batch ray tracers.

### Citations

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Citation Context ...m of ray tracing. However, the system approximates visibility by discretizing the scene into polygons, and has no correctness guarantees. Image-based rendering (IBR) systems, such as the Light Field [=-=Levoy and Hanrahan 1996-=-] and the Lumigraph [Gortler et al. 1996], have similarities to our system in that they collect 4D radiance samples that are quadrilinearly interpolated to approximate radiance. However, IBR systems t... |

852 | The Lumigraph
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Citation Context ...imates visibility by discretizing the scene into polygons, and has no correctness guarantees. Image-based rendering (IBR) systems, such as the Light Field [Levoy and Hanrahan 1996] and the Lumigraph [=-=Gortler et al. 1996-=-], have similarities to our system in that they collect 4D radiance samples that are quadrilinearly interpolated to approximate radiance. However, IBR systems typically have a data acquisition pre-pro... |

560 | An improved illumination model for shaded display - Whitted - 1980 |

529 |
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Citation Context ...() f(x) ~ f(x) max x2D;2D x 2 2 f 00 () f(x) ~ f(x) min x2D;2D x 2 2 f 00 () There are several ways in which this error can be bounded, including the following: standard interval arithmetic [Moore 1=-=979-=-], Hansen's linear interval arithmetic [Hansen 1975] and variants [Tupper 1996], and ane arithmetic [Andrade et al. 1994]. Standard interval arithmetic can be used to bound the interpolation error by ... |

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Citation Context ...ng systems trade accuracy for speed by using error estimates to determine where computation and memory resources should be expended. Radiosity systems use explicit error bounds to make this trade-o [H=-=anrahan et al. 1991-=-; Lischinski et al. 1994]. Ray tracers typically use super-sampling and stochastic techniques to estimate error in computed radiance [Cook 1986; Painter and Sloan 1989]. This section describes how lin... |

361 | Measuring and Modeling Anisotropic Reflection - Ward - 1992 |

333 | Modelling the interaction of light between diffuse surfaces - Goral, Torrance, et al. - 1984 |

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Citation Context ... 1984], beamtracing for polyhedral scenes [Heckbert and Hanrahan 1984], cone-tracing [Amanatides 1984], and ray classication [Arvo and Kirk 1987]. A good summary of these algorithms can be found in [G=-=lassner 1989-=-; Glassner 1995; Sillion and Puech 1994]. In this section, we discuss the related work most relevant to our approach. 2.1 Approximating shading Systems that accelerate rendering by approximating radia... |

278 |
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Citation Context ... explicit error bounds to make this trade-o [Hanrahan et al. 1991; Lischinski et al. 1994]. Ray tracers typically use super-sampling and stochastic techniques to estimate error in computed radiance [C=-=ook 1986-=-; Painter and Sloan 1989]. This section describes how linear interval arithmetic can be used to bound interpolation error for the Ward isotropic shading model [Ward 1992]. It is straightforward to ext... |

235 | A Ray Tracing Solution for Diffuse Interreflection - Ward, Rubinstein, et al. - 1988 |

218 |
Principles of Digital Image Synthesis
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Citation Context ...cing for polyhedral scenes [Heckbert and Hanrahan 1984], cone-tracing [Amanatides 1984], and ray classication [Arvo and Kirk 1987]. A good summary of these algorithms can be found in [Glassner 1989; G=-=lassner 1995-=-; Sillion and Puech 1994]. In this section, we discuss the related work most relevant to our approach. 2.1 Approximating shading Systems that accelerate rendering by approximating radiance can be cate... |

185 | Post-Rendering 3D Warping
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Citation Context ...an et al. 1991]. Several recent systems reuse pixels from the previous frame to render the current frame without any prior knowledge of the viewpoint's trajectory [Badt 1988; Adelson and Hodges 1995; =-=Mark et al. 1997-=-; Chevrier 1997]. Adelson and Hodges apply a 3D warp to pixels from reference images to the current image. This algorithm speeds up visibility for eye rays but does not accelerate shading. Mark et al.... |

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Citation Context ...concludes with a discussion of future work. 2. RELATED WORK Many researchers have developed techniques that improve the performance of global illumination algorithms: adaptive 3D spatial hierarchies [=-=Glassner 198-=-4], beamtracing for polyhedral scenes [Heckbert and Hanrahan 1984], cone-tracing [Amanatides 1984], and ray classication [Arvo and Kirk 1987]. A good summary of these algorithms can be found in [Glass... |

161 | Beam tracing polygonal objects
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Citation Context ...TED WORK Many researchers have developed techniques that improve the performance of global illumination algorithms: adaptive 3D spatial hierarchies [Glassner 1984], beamtracing for polyhedral scenes [=-=Heckbert and Hanrahan 198-=-4], cone-tracing [Amanatides 1984], and ray classication [Arvo and Kirk 1987]. A good summary of these algorithms can be found in [Glassner 1989; Glassner 1995; Sillion and Puech 1994]. In this sectio... |

154 |
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Citation Context ...pre-computed radiosity values, but typically render only diuse, polygonal environments. Hybrid systems attempt to bridge the gap between these two extremes [Chen et al. 1991; Sillion and Puech 1989; S=-=illion and Puech 199-=-4; Wallace et al. 1987; Ward et al. 1988]. However, computing the view-dependent component of radiance is expensive; imagery of ray-traced quality is traditionally produced by o-line rendering algorit... |

139 |
A Two-Pass Solution to the Rendering Equation: A Synthesis of Ray Tracing and Radiosity Methods
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- 1987
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Citation Context ...alues, but typically render only diuse, polygonal environments. Hybrid systems attempt to bridge the gap between these two extremes [Chen et al. 1991; Sillion and Puech 1989; Sillion and Puech 1994; W=-=allace et al. 198-=-7; Ward et al. 1988]. However, computing the view-dependent component of radiance is expensive; imagery of ray-traced quality is traditionally produced by o-line rendering algorithms that are too slow... |

126 | P.: Irradiance Gradients
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Citation Context ...lazily sampling diuse inter-re ections [Ward 1992; Ward et al. 1988]. Radiance uses gradient information to guide the sparse, non-uniform sampling of the slowly varying diuse component of radiance [Wa=-=rd and Heckbert 199-=-2]. However, Radiancesdoes not bound the error incurred by interpolating diuse radiance, nor does it interpolate other components of radiance. Diefenbach's rendering system [Diefenbach and Badler 1997... |

113 | A Progressive Multi-Pass Method for Global Illumination
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- 1991
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Citation Context ... al. 1984] support interactive viewing of pre-computed radiosity values, but typically render only diuse, polygonal environments. Hybrid systems attempt to bridge the gap between these two extremes [C=-=hen et al. 1991-=-; Sillion and Puech 1989; Sillion and Puech 1994; Wallace et al. 1987; Ward et al. 1988]. However, computing the view-dependent component of radiance is expensive; imagery of ray-traced quality is tra... |

105 | A general two-pass method integrating specular and diffuse reflection
- Sillion, Puech
- 1989
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... interactive viewing of pre-computed radiosity values, but typically render only diuse, polygonal environments. Hybrid systems attempt to bridge the gap between these two extremes [Chen et al. 1991; S=-=illion and Puech 1989-=-; Sillion and Puech 1994; Wallace et al. 1987; Ward et al. 1988]. However, computing the view-dependent component of radiance is expensive; imagery of ray-traced quality is traditionally produced by o... |

99 | Ray Tracing with Cones
- Amanatides
- 1984
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...chniques that improve the performance of global illumination algorithms: adaptive 3D spatial hierarchies [Glassner 1984], beamtracing for polyhedral scenes [Heckbert and Hanrahan 1984], cone-tracing [=-=Amanatides 198-=-4], and ray classication [Arvo and Kirk 1987]. A good summary of these algorithms can be found in [Glassner 1989; Glassner 1995; Sillion and Puech 1994]. In this section, we discuss the related work m... |

91 | M.: Global Visibility Algorithm for Illumination Computations. siggraph - Teller, Hanrahan - 1993 |

89 |
Antialiased ray tracing by adaptive progressive refinement
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Citation Context ...rror bounds to make this trade-o [Hanrahan et al. 1991; Lischinski et al. 1994]. Ray tracers typically use super-sampling and stochastic techniques to estimate error in computed radiance [Cook 1986; P=-=ainter and Sloan 1989-=-]. This section describes how linear interval arithmetic can be used to bound interpolation error for the Ward isotropic shading model [Ward 1992]. It is straightforward to extend these results to han... |

85 | RAPPOPORT A.: Image-Based Rendering for Non-Diffuse Synthetic Scenes - LISCHINSKI - 1998 |

66 | Bounds and Error Estimates for Radiosity
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Citation Context ...acy for speed by using error estimates to determine where computation and memory resources should be expended. Radiosity systems use explicit error bounds to make this trade-o [Hanrahan et al. 1991; L=-=ischinski et al. 1994-=-]. Ray tracers typically use super-sampling and stochastic techniques to estimate error in computed radiance [Cook 1986; Painter and Sloan 1989]. This section describes how linear interval arithmetic ... |

63 | Shaft Culling for Efficient Ray-Traced Radiosity - Haines, Wallace - 1994 |

61 |
Ray casting for modelling solids
- Roth
- 1982
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Citation Context ...lement the Ward isotropic shading model [Ward 1992] and textures. It supports convex primitives (spheres, cubes, polygons, cylinders and cones) and the CSG union and intersection of these primitives [=-=Roth 1982-=-]. To accelerate intersection computations several optimizations have been implemented; these optimizations are discussed in Section 8.1. Linetrees. Radiance samples are stored in a data structure cal... |

57 | Multi-pass Pipeline Rendering: Realism For Dynamic Environments
- Diefenbach
- 1997
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ce [Ward and Heckbert 1992]. However, Radiancesdoes not bound the error incurred by interpolating diuse radiance, nor does it interpolate other components of radiance. Diefenbach's rendering system [D=-=iefenbach and Badler 1997-=-] uses multiple passes of standard graphics hardware to acquire some of the realism of ray tracing. However, the system approximates visibility by discretizing the scene into polygons, and has no corr... |

54 |
Adaptive Shadow Testing for Ray Tracing
- Ward
- 1991
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ng a ray through the kd-tree structure is very fast. Also, shadow caches associated with objects accelerate shadow computations for shadowed objects. Other extensions such as adaptive shadow testing [=-=Ward 19-=-94] and Light Buers [Haines and Greenberg 1986] might improve performance further. 32 Bala, Dorsey, Teller 8.2 Test scene The data reported below was obtained for the museum scene shown in Figures 15... |

46 | Progressive radiance evaluation using directional coherence maps
- Guo
- 1998
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...iance. Several researchers exploit image coherence to accelerate ray tracing [Amanatides and Fournier 1984]. Recently, systems for the progressive renement of ray-traced imagery have been developed [G=-=uo 1998-=-; Pighin et al. 1997]. Guo samples the image sparsely along discontinuities to produce images for previewing. For polyhedral scenes, Pighin et al. compute image-space discontinuities used to construct... |

46 | The light buffer: A shadow-testing accelerator - Haines, Greenberg - 1986 |

43 | Hac: Hybrid adaptive caching for distributed storage systems
- Castro, Adya, et al.
- 1997
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Citation Context ...nt of memory, normal execution resumes. Since scanning operates on coherent blocks of memory, the algorithm has excellent memory locality, which is important forsne-grained cache eviction strategies [=-=Castro et al. 1997-=-]. 0 20 40 60 80 Memory Usage (MB) 0.9 1.0 1.1 Normalized average run time RT without linetree cache eviction RT with linetree cache eviction Memory used for first frame Fig. 25. Impact of linetree ca... |

39 |
B.: Modeling the Interaction of Light Between Di use Surfaces. siggraph
- Goral, Torrance, et al.
- 1984
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... and diuse re ectance functions to produce high-quality view-dependent images; however, this quality is achieved at the expense of interactivity. At the other end of the spectrum, radiosity systems [G=-=oral et al. 198-=-4] support interactive viewing of pre-computed radiosity values, but typically render only diuse, polygonal environments. Hybrid systems attempt to bridge the gap between these two extremes [Chen et a... |

35 |
Generating exact ray-traced animation frames by reprojection
- ADELSON, HODGES
- 1995
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...hapman et al. 1990; Chapman et al. 1991]. Several recent systems reuse pixels from the previous frame to render the current frame without any prior knowledge of the viewpoint's trajectory [Badt 1988; =-=Adelson and Hodges 1995-=-; Mark et al. 1997; Chevrier 1997]. Adelson and Hodges apply a 3D warp to pixels from reference images to the current image. This algorithm speeds up visibility for eye rays but does not accelerate sh... |

35 |
A generalized interval arithmetic
- Hansen
- 1978
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...~ f(x) min x2D;2D x 2 2 f 00 () There are several ways in which this error can be bounded, including the following: standard interval arithmetic [Moore 1979], Hansen's linear interval arithmetic [Han=-=sen 1975-=-] and variants [Tupper 1996], and ane arithmetic [Andrade et al. 1994]. Standard interval arithmetic can be used to bound the interpolation error by bounding the minimum and maximum value of f(x) over... |

34 |
Two algorithms for taking advantage of temporal coherence in ray tracing
- Badt
- 1988
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... of rays [Chapman et al. 1990; Chapman et al. 1991]. Several recent systems reuse pixels from the previous frame to render the current frame without any prior knowledge of the viewpoint's trajectory [=-=Badt 1988-=-; Adelson and Hodges 1995; Mark et al. 1997; Chevrier 1997]. Adelson and Hodges apply a 3D warp to pixels from reference images to the current image. This algorithm speeds up visibility for eye rays b... |

32 |
Parameterized Ray Tracing
- Sequin, Smyrl
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ler et al. 1996]. 5.1.2 Detecting discontinuities. The error bounding algorithm detects discontinuities by maintaining additional geometric information per extremal ray of the interpolant: ray trees [=-=Séquin and Smyrl 1989-=-]. These ray trees are used to detect self-shadows, occlusions, and visibility changes which could potentially cause incorrect interpolation. A ray tree tracks all objects, lights, and occluders that ... |

31 | Cardinal arithmetics - Bancerek - 1990 |

25 | Hierarchical view-dependent structures for interactive scene manipulation - Briere, Poulin |

23 | D.: Progressive previewing of ray-traced images using image plane disconinuity meshing
- Pighin, Lischinski, et al.
- 1997
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...eral researchers exploit image coherence to accelerate ray tracing [Amanatides and Fournier 1984]. Recently, systems for the progressive renement of ray-traced imagery have been developed [Guo 1998; P=-=ighin et al. 1997-=-]. Guo samples the image sparsely along discontinuities to produce images for previewing. For polyhedral scenes, Pighin et al. compute image-space discontinuities used to construct a constrained Delau... |

20 |
Exploiting temporal coherence in ray tracing
- CHAPMAN, CALVERT, et al.
- 1990
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...rrectness guarantees they provide. Chapman et al. assume the scene is polygonal and use the known trajectory of the viewpoint through the scene to compute continuous intersection information of rays [=-=Chapman et al. 1990-=-; Chapman et al. 1991]. Several recent systems reuse pixels from the previous frame to render the current frame without any prior knowledge of the viewpoint's trajectory [Badt 1988; Adelson and Hodges... |

18 | Conservative radiance interpolants for ray tracing. Eurographics Rendering Workshop
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(Show Context)
Citation Context ... ages. While this algorithm decreases some aliasing artifacts, it still may interpolate across shadows or specular highlights; i.e., there are no bounds on error. 2.3 Discussion In [Bala et al. 1998; =-=Teller et al. 1996-=-], we presented a preliminary algorithm that accelerates shading for a Whitted ray tracer by building 4D interpolants that are reused to satisfy radiance queries. We have added several new contributio... |

17 |
Spatio-temporal coherence in ray tracing
- Chapman, Calvert, et al.
- 1991
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...they provide. Chapman et al. assume the scene is polygonal and use the known trajectory of the viewpoint through the scene to compute continuous intersection information of rays [Chapman et al. 1990; =-=Chapman et al. 1991-=-]. Several recent systems reuse pixels from the previous frame to render the current frame without any prior knowledge of the viewpoint's trajectory [Badt 1988; Adelson and Hodges 1995; Mark et al. 19... |

14 | Affine arithmetic
- Andrade, Comba, et al.
- 1994
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... which this error can be bounded, including the following: standard interval arithmetic [Moore 1979], Hansen's linear interval arithmetic [Hansen 1975] and variants [Tupper 1996], and ane arithmetic [=-=Andrade et al. 1994-=-]. Standard interval arithmetic can be used to bound the interpolation error by bounding the minimum and maximum value of f(x) over the domain of Radiance Interpolants for Accelerated Bounded-Error Ra... |

13 | A Framework for Global Illumination in Animated Environments - Nimeroff, Dorsey, et al. - 1995 |

12 |
Graphing equations with generalized interval arithmetic
- Tupper
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(Show Context)
Citation Context ...f 00 () There are several ways in which this error can be bounded, including the following: standard interval arithmetic [Moore 1979], Hansen's linear interval arithmetic [Hansen 1975] and variants [T=-=upper 1996-=-], and ane arithmetic [Andrade et al. 1994]. Standard interval arithmetic can be used to bound the interpolation error by bounding the minimum and maximum value of f(x) over the domain of Radiance Int... |

11 | Interactive ray-traced scene editing using ray segment trees
- Bala, Dorsey, et al.
- 1999
(Show Context)
Citation Context .... Such systems would be more useful if the user's viewpoint were permitted to change. Integrating radiance interpolants with scene manipulation permits both dynamic scene editing and dynamic viewing [=-=Bala et al. 1999-=-]. We would also like to extend the shading model of our ray tracer and its support for complex primitives; both of these would require extending the error bounding algorithm, though the interpolant-b... |

9 | Bounded-error interactive ray tracing
- Bala, Teller
- 1988
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...or Ray Tracing 5 ages. While this algorithm decreases some aliasing artifacts, it still may interpolate across shadows or specular highlights; i.e., there are no bounds on error. 2.3 Discussion In [B=-=ala et al. 1998-=-; Teller et al. 1996], we presented a preliminary algorithm that accelerates shading for a Whitted ray tracer by building 4D interpolants that are reused to satisfy radiance queries. We have added sev... |

7 |
A view interpolation technique taking into account diffuse and specular inter-re¤ections
- CHEVRIER
- 1997
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...everal recent systems reuse pixels from the previous frame to render the current frame without any prior knowledge of the viewpoint's trajectory [Badt 1988; Adelson and Hodges 1995; Mark et al. 1997; =-=Chevrier 1997-=-]. Adelson and Hodges apply a 3D warp to pixels from reference images to the current image. This algorithm speeds up visibility for eye rays but does not accelerate shading. Mark et al. also apply a 3... |