## A Reconstruction of Conceptual Graphs on Top of a Production System (1992)

Venue: | In Proceedings of the 7th Annual Workshop on Conceptual Graphs |

Citations: | 3 - 1 self |

### BibTeX

@INPROCEEDINGS{Bouaud92areconstruction,

author = {Jacques Bouaud and Pierre Zweigenbaum},

title = {A Reconstruction of Conceptual Graphs on Top of a Production System},

booktitle = {In Proceedings of the 7th Annual Workshop on Conceptual Graphs},

year = {1992}

}

### OpenURL

### Abstract

In this paper, we study how several aspects of the Conceptual Graph theory can be implemented using the pattern-matching mechanisms of production systems. Usually, standard pattern matching applies to arbitrary data that, unlike CGs, do not rely on a particular theory. Reconstructions of Conceptual Graphs in terms of basic graphs have been proposed in the literature. We show that K, a graph representation language with "high-level" (rule-based) graph manipulation facilities, allows an elegant implementation of these proposals. We show how the CG projection is reconstructed from standard pattern matching. Such a mechanism provides the user with graph retrieval facilities. Moreover, K's inherent features, such as forward reasoning rules, are gracefully transferred to the resulting CG implementation with no further effort. The result is a production system that operates within the CG theory thus providing the basis for a flexible CG processor. Jacques Bouaud and Pierre Zweig...

### Citations

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Citation Context ... wm c ), where n is the number of rules, wm the size of WM, and c the mean number of patterns per rule. For a rule, wm corresponds to the branching factor of the search tree, and c to its depth. RETE =-=[10]-=- and TREAT [11] are currently the most efficient production system matchers but do not provide a Jacques Bouaud and Pierre Zweigenbaum Rapport Interne RI-112b In: Proceedings of the 7 th Annual Worksh... |

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Citation Context ...ion System 3/13 1 Introduction Graph matching operations constitute an important issue in the context of Sowa's Conceptual Graphs (CGs) [1] for they allow associative graph access. Production Systems =-=[2]-=- are also known to provide, through the process of pattern matching, an associative access to arbitrary data that unlike CGs do not rely on a particular theory. This last point has often been criticiz... |

31 |
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Citation Context ...or using these techniques. 6.0.1 Ordering Multi-Patterns. Matchers usually treat a multi-pattern from left to right. The aim of pattern ordering is to reduce the branching factor of the solution tree =-=[12]-=-. Constraints due to variable sharing are used to limit the possible matches and avoid the costly cross-products during joins. Ordering the multi-pattern representations of CGs is very important becau... |

28 | Multi-Level Hierarchical Retrieval
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(Show Context)
Citation Context ...bles the selection of arbitrary CGs at different levels of abstraction (graph morphism and projection). With projection, CG queries can be performed, hence enabling the retrieval of more specific CGs =-=[7, 8]-=-. A CG query Q is compiled into a P-graph, and as the matcher returns every instanciation of this P-graph, we obtain every D-graph whose corresponding asserted CG is a subgraph of a larger CG A such t... |

25 | Compiled hierarchical retrieval
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(Show Context)
Citation Context ...bles the selection of arbitrary CGs at different levels of abstraction (graph morphism and projection). With projection, CG queries can be performed, hence enabling the retrieval of more specific CGs =-=[7, 8]-=-. A CG query Q is compiled into a P-graph, and as the matcher returns every instanciation of this P-graph, we obtain every D-graph whose corresponding asserted CG is a subgraph of a larger CG A such t... |

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Citation Context ...shop on Conceptual Graphs, Las Cruces (NM), July 8--10, 1992. A Reconstruction of Conceptual Graphs on Top of a Production System 11/13 6.0.2 The Unique-Attribute Representation. Tambe and Rosenbloom =-=[13]-=- proposed a linear match in O(wm \Theta c) instead of the exponential O(wm c ) by acting on the branching factor of the solution tree. This result is obtained with the unique attribute representation:... |

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Citation Context ...hat there exists a projection from G to G 0 . Figure 2 illustrates how CG projection is obtained from SPM in our framework. An analogous approach could be used to take into account a relation lattice =-=[6]-=- and adapt the projection mechanism. Figure 3 exemplifies a CG and its corresponding P-graph. As this CG projects into the CG in Fig. 1, this P-graph matches the previous D-graph yielding the followin... |

4 |
A semantic analyzer for natural language understanding in an expert domain. App Artif Intell 1994;8(3):425--53
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Citation Context ... an application, the system behavior can consequently be described by a declarative rule base instead of a program. The following example is borrowed from a medical natural language processing system =-=[9]-=- ; the rule stating that the presence of a high dose of radioactive iodine in the body causes the death of all thyroid cells, can be easily written. The representation of this statement as a productio... |

3 |
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Citation Context ...rary data that unlike CGs do not rely on a particular theory. This last point has often been criticized. A reconstruction of CGs in terms of more basic "Knowledge Graphs" has been proposed b=-=y Willems [3]-=-. Furthermore, Ellis and Willems [4] showed how fundamental operations on CGs can be described using graph grammar production rules. In this paper, we explore how production systems and their standard... |

2 |
Analysis of semantic networks using graph grammars
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Citation Context ...y on a particular theory. This last point has often been criticized. A reconstruction of CGs in terms of more basic "Knowledge Graphs" has been proposed by Willems [3]. Furthermore, Ellis an=-=d Willems [4]-=- showed how fundamental operations on CGs can be described using graph grammar production rules. In this paper, we explore how production systems and their standard pattern matching (SPM) techniques p... |

2 |
un langage pour l'impl'ementation d'outils de repr'esentation des connaissances. PhD thesis, Universit'e Paris 7, 22 juin 1989. Jacques Bouaud and Pierre Zweigenbaum Rapport Interne RI-112b
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(Show Context)
Citation Context ...uction systems and their standard pattern matching (SPM) techniques provide an elegant framework to implement easily and explicitly several aspects of the CG theory. We use the production system of K =-=[5]-=-, a graph representation language, and show that it is convenient for implementing such ideas. An important point is that the fundamental CG projection, which determines the specialization/generalizat... |

2 |
a better match algoritm for AI production systems
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(Show Context)
Citation Context ...n is the number of rules, wm the size of WM, and c the mean number of patterns per rule. For a rule, wm corresponds to the branching factor of the search tree, and c to its depth. RETE [10] and TREAT =-=[11]-=- are currently the most efficient production system matchers but do not provide a Jacques Bouaud and Pierre Zweigenbaum Rapport Interne RI-112b In: Proceedings of the 7 th Annual Workshop on Conceptua... |

2 |
TREE : une strat'egie de jointure pour syst`eme de production fond'ee sur la propagation de contraintes
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(Show Context)
Citation Context ...chniques are often used. The hash code that indexes a fact depends on the pattern it matches, its rule, its rank in the multi-pattern, and the symbol to be tested. The matching algorithm of K is TREE =-=[14]-=-, a RETE-like matcher, suited for matching connected facts. Each symbol S indexes both the triples leaving and reaching S: [S ? ?], resp. [? ? S]. TREE's heuristic join strategy exploits these connect... |