## GIOTTO3D: A System for Visualizing Hierarchical Structures in 3D (1997)

Venue: | Proceedings of Graph Drawing ’96), Lecture Notes in Computer Science 1190 |

Citations: | 18 - 1 self |

### BibTeX

@INPROCEEDINGS{Garg97giotto3d:a,

author = {Ashim Garg and Roberto Tamassia},

title = {GIOTTO3D: A System for Visualizing Hierarchical Structures in 3D},

booktitle = {Proceedings of Graph Drawing ’96), Lecture Notes in Computer Science 1190},

year = {1997},

pages = {193--200},

publisher = {Springer-Verlag}

}

### Years of Citing Articles

### OpenURL

### Abstract

Hierarchical structures represented by directed acyclic graphs are widely used in visualization applications (e.g., class inheritance diagrams and scheduling diagrams). 3D information visualization has received increasing attention in the last few years, motivated by the advances in hardware and software technology for 3D computer graphics.

### Citations

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Citation Context ...to encode application-specific information with colors. Each edge is represented by a Bezier tube [22] whose control points are given by the bend-points of the edge. A Bezier tube is a Bezier surface =-=[11]-=- that is shaped like a hollow tube. Bezier tubes were introduced in [22], and were shown to have good visual properties, such as reflectivity, roundness, and smoothness. We have also experimented with... |

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Citation Context ...ous research on 3D graph drawing (both hierarchical and non-hierarchical) has focused on the development of visualization systems (see, e.g., [2, 5, 17]). Recent theoretical work has been reported in =-=[3, 4, 15]-=-. We now review previous work on visualizing hierarchical structures in 3D. In a cone tree [20], each subtree is associated with a cone such that the vertex at the root of the subtree is placed at the... |

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Citation Context ...become widespread in Web documents, thanks to the VRML language for modeling three-dimensional scene graphs. Recent work on WWW navigation [18], software visualization [19], information visualization =-=[20]-=-, and algorithm animation [1] has also advocated the use of 3D visual representations. Previous research on 3D graph drawing (both hierarchical and non-hierarchical) has focused on the development of ... |

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Citation Context ...ystem for displaying knowledge bases. GraphVizualizer3D [27] emphasizes manual layouts. COMAIDE [9] uses a force-directed method. The systems GMB [16] and PLUM [19] extend to 3D the layering approach =-=[23, 13]-=- which was conceived for constructing 2D hierarchical drawings. The drawings constructed by these two systems have characteristics similar to their 2D counterparts. 2 GIOTTO3D GIOTTO3D is a system for... |

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Citation Context ...c criteria, and a lifting transformation that uses the third dimension to visualize the hierarchical relationships between the vertices. There is considerable work on 2D drawings of undirected graphs =-=[6]-=-, and many algorithms have been developed for constructing drawings satisfying one or more aesthetic criteria. ?? An important plot element in the movie Jurassic Park involves a 3D virtual-reality tra... |

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Citation Context ...ystem for displaying knowledge bases. GraphVizualizer3D [27] emphasizes manual layouts. COMAIDE [9] uses a force-directed method. The systems GMB [16] and PLUM [19] extend to 3D the layering approach =-=[23, 13]-=- which was conceived for constructing 2D hierarchical drawings. The drawings constructed by these two systems have characteristics similar to their 2D counterparts. 2 GIOTTO3D GIOTTO3D is a system for... |

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Citation Context ..., each subtree is associated with a cone such that the vertex at the root of the subtree is placed at the apex of the cone and its children are circularly arranged around the base of the cone. SemNet =-=[10]-=- is a system for displaying knowledge bases. GraphVizualizer3D [27] emphasizes manual layouts. COMAIDE [9] uses a force-directed method. The systems GMB [16] and PLUM [19] extend to 3D the layering ap... |

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Citation Context ...graph as input, it first transforms the graph into a planar graph by replacing each crossing with a fictitious vertex, and then constructs a 2D orthogonal drawing with the bend-minimization method of =-=[24]. GIOTTO p-=-roduces high-quality layouts and has been widely used in software visualization systems. In [7, 8], the performance of GIOTTO on more than 11,000 graphs derived from "real-life" software eng... |

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Citation Context ...bject has to be shown in front on the screen (as is the case with 2D-visualization). Empirical studies have also shown that 3D visualizations are generally easier to understand than 2D visualizations =-=[21, 26]-=-. Many ? Research supported in part by the National Science Foundation under grant CCR-- 9423847, and by the U.S. Army Research Office under grant DAAH04--96--1--0013. virtual-reality packages also ac... |

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Citation Context ... element in the movie Jurassic Park involves a 3D virtual-reality traversal of a tree representing a Unix file system. 2 Fig. 1. 2D polyline drawing constructed by Phase Draw-Flat of GIOTTO3D. GIOTTO =-=[25]-=- is a successful general-purpose drawing algorithm based on the planarization approach and a bend-minimization method. Namely, given a non-planar graph as input, it first transforms the graph into a p... |

56 | An experimental comparison of four graph drawing algorithms
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Citation Context ...ious vertex, and then constructs a 2D orthogonal drawing with the bend-minimization method of [24]. GIOTTO produces high-quality layouts and has been widely used in software visualization systems. In =-=[7, 8], the perf-=-ormance of GIOTTO on more than 11,000 graphs derived from "real-life" software engineering and database applications was experimentally evaluated. This study show that GIOTTO performs very w... |

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Citation Context ...ents, thanks to the VRML language for modeling three-dimensional scene graphs. Recent work on WWW navigation [18], software visualization [19], information visualization [20], and algorithm animation =-=[1]-=- has also advocated the use of 3D visual representations. Previous research on 3D graph drawing (both hierarchical and non-hierarchical) has focused on the development of visualization systems (see, e... |

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Citation Context ...e root of the subtree is placed at the apex of the cone and its children are circularly arranged around the base of the cone. SemNet [10] is a system for displaying knowledge bases. GraphVizualizer3D =-=[27]-=- emphasizes manual layouts. COMAIDE [9] uses a force-directed method. The systems GMB [16] and PLUM [19] extend to 3D the layering approach [23, 13] which was conceived for constructing 2D hierarchica... |

35 | 3D graph drawing with simulated annealing
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Citation Context ...also advocated the use of 3D visual representations. Previous research on 3D graph drawing (both hierarchical and non-hierarchical) has focused on the development of visualization systems (see, e.g., =-=[2, 5, 17]-=-). Recent theoretical work has been reported in [3, 4, 15]. We now review previous work on visualizing hierarchical structures in 3D. In a cone tree [20], each subtree is associated with a cone such t... |

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Citation Context ...ous research on 3D graph drawing (both hierarchical and non-hierarchical) has focused on the development of visualization systems (see, e.g., [2, 5, 17]). Recent theoretical work has been reported in =-=[3, 4, 15]-=-. We now review previous work on visualizing hierarchical structures in 3D. In a cone tree [20], each subtree is associated with a cone such that the vertex at the root of the subtree is placed at the... |

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Citation Context ...ew years, 3D visualization will become widespread in Web documents, thanks to the VRML language for modeling three-dimensional scene graphs. Recent work on WWW navigation [18], software visualization =-=[19]-=-, information visualization [20], and algorithm animation [1] has also advocated the use of 3D visual representations. Previous research on 3D graph drawing (both hierarchical and non-hierarchical) ha... |

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Citation Context ...bject has to be shown in front on the screen (as is the case with 2D-visualization). Empirical studies have also shown that 3D visualizations are generally easier to understand than 2D visualizations =-=[21, 26]-=-. Many ? Research supported in part by the National Science Foundation under grant CCR-- 9423847, and by the U.S. Army Research Office under grant DAAH04--96--1--0013. virtual-reality packages also ac... |

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Citation Context ...ious vertex, and then constructs a 2D orthogonal drawing with the bend-minimization method of [24]. GIOTTO produces high-quality layouts and has been widely used in software visualization systems. In =-=[7, 8], the perf-=-ormance of GIOTTO on more than 11,000 graphs derived from "real-life" software engineering and database applications was experimentally evaluated. This study show that GIOTTO performs very w... |

15 | A parallel simulated annealing algorithm for generating 3D layouts of undirected graphs
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Citation Context ...also advocated the use of 3D visual representations. Previous research on 3D graph drawing (both hierarchical and non-hierarchical) has focused on the development of visualization systems (see, e.g., =-=[2, 5, 17]-=-). Recent theoretical work has been reported in [3, 4, 15]. We now review previous work on visualizing hierarchical structures in 3D. In a cone tree [20], each subtree is associated with a cone such t... |

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Citation Context ...also advocated the use of 3D visual representations. Previous research on 3D graph drawing (both hierarchical and non-hierarchical) has focused on the development of visualization systems (see, e.g., =-=[2, 5, 17]-=-). Recent theoretical work has been reported in [3, 4, 15]. We now review previous work on visualizing hierarchical structures in 3D. In a cone tree [20], each subtree is associated with a cone such t... |

11 |
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Citation Context ...ous research on 3D graph drawing (both hierarchical and non-hierarchical) has focused on the development of visualization systems (see, e.g., [2, 5, 17]). Recent theoretical work has been reported in =-=[3, 4, 15]-=-. We now review previous work on visualizing hierarchical structures in 3D. In a cone tree [20], each subtree is associated with a cone such that the vertex at the root of the subtree is placed at the... |

6 | Comaide: Information visualization using cooperative 3d diagram layout
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Citation Context ...pex of the cone and its children are circularly arranged around the base of the cone. SemNet [10] is a system for displaying knowledge bases. GraphVizualizer3D [27] emphasizes manual layouts. COMAIDE =-=[9]-=- uses a force-directed method. The systems GMB [16] and PLUM [19] extend to 3D the layering approach [23, 13] which was conceived for constructing 2D hierarchical drawings. The drawings constructed by... |

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3 |
GMB: A tool for manipulating and animating graph data structures
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(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ranged around the base of the cone. SemNet [10] is a system for displaying knowledge bases. GraphVizualizer3D [27] emphasizes manual layouts. COMAIDE [9] uses a force-directed method. The systems GMB =-=[16]-=- and PLUM [19] extend to 3D the layering approach [23, 13] which was conceived for constructing 2D hierarchical drawings. The drawings constructed by these two systems have characteristics similar to ... |

3 |
Using 3D tubes to solve the intersecting line representation problem
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Citation Context ...of GIOTTO. 2. Lift: Assign z-coordinates to the vertices and to the bends of the edges such that their placement reflects the hierarchy. 3. Reshape: Draw vertices as spheres and edges as Bezier tubes =-=[22]-=-, and create a footprint of the 3D drawing. We now describe each step in more detail. Draw-Flat. In this phase, GIOTTO3D constructs a 2D polyline drawing of G in the XY -plane using a variation GIOTTO... |

3 | Upward drawings to fit surfaces - Hashemi, Rival - 1994 |

3 | 3D layout of reachability graphs of communicating processes - J'eron, Jard - 1995 |

2 |
Effective visualization of hierarchical structures in 3D
- Garg, Tamassia
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(Show Context)
Citation Context ...rchical structures are common in real-life applications. In this section, we illustrate the use of GIOTTO3D in three applications. Sample GIOTTO3D visualizations are also shown (with color images) in =-=[14]-=-. Education. Figure 2 shows two different views (from different camera angles and at different zooms) of a DAG depicting the evolution-history of UNIX, taken from [13]. Economic Planning. Figure 3(a) ... |

2 |
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Citation Context ...s expected that in the next few years, 3D visualization will become widespread in Web documents, thanks to the VRML language for modeling three-dimensional scene graphs. Recent work on WWW navigation =-=[18]-=-, software visualization [19], information visualization [20], and algorithm animation [1] has also advocated the use of 3D visual representations. Previous research on 3D graph drawing (both hierarch... |