## An Implementation Of A Coordinate Based Location System (2003)

Citations: | 4 - 1 self |

### BibTeX

@TECHREPORT{Spence03animplementation,

author = {David R. Spence and C David R. Spence and David Spence},

title = {An Implementation Of A Coordinate Based Location System},

institution = {},

year = {2003}

}

### OpenURL

### Abstract

This paper explains the co-ordinate based location system built for XenoSearch, a resource discovery system in the XenoServer Open Platform. The system is builds on the work of GNP, Lighthouse and many more recent schemes. We also present results from various combinations of algorithms to perform the actual co-ordinate calculation based on GNP, Lighthouse and spring based systems and show our implementations of the various algorithms give similar prediction errors. 1

### Citations

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(Show Context)
Citation Context ...h node in the overlay has a unique 128bit nodeId. The system models the key space as a ring, with nodes managing the key space after it’s identifier, up to the next one, much in the same way as Chor=-=d [14]-=-. 4.1 Joining A node joins the overlay by contacting a node already in the peer-to-peer system. From this peer we retrieve the list of all the peers in the system and their addresses (called its routi... |

1522 |
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Citation Context ...ation. We wait until the total acceleration has reached a value below a certain threshold (ie there is no force on any of the “particles”). 3.1.3 Simplex Downhill (GNP) The Simplex Downhill Algori=-=thm [9]-=- is a versatile multi-dimensional error minimisation method. It tends to produce good results in a quick time, although it is suggested to restart the method about three times to check that the minima... |

536 | Predicting Internet Network Distance with Coordinates-Based Approaches
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(Show Context)
Citation Context ...um latency to a set of hosts using a collaborative tool. To this end we have developed the ucam.location classes. We take up a coordinate based approach to network locality, as first suggested by GNP =-=[10]-=-. This approximates the network topology as a d-dimensional Euclidean space. First a basis is set up between more than d + 1 Positioning Servers. This basis is then used to calculate the position of a... |

260 | IDMaps: a global internet host distance estimation service
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Citation Context ...imisation was used to first construct a basis and then using that basis to find the positions of hosts relative to that basis. This was shown to have better average predictions of latency than IDMaps =-=[4]. Li-=-ghthouse [11] was a development of the GNP idea which seeks to solve a number of the scalability issues of the GNP system by allowing any previously positioned server to act as a “lighthouse”. Fur... |

163 | Virtual Landmarks for the Internet
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(Show Context)
Citation Context ...issues have been addressed with the SCoLE system [15], which introduces clustering on the BGP Address Prefix and does not require the participating hosts to agree on a global basis. Virtual Landmarks =-=[16]-=- is a further development of the basic GNP idea. In Virtual Landmarks a Lipschitz transformation is used instead of a mapping to Euclidean Space. A Lipschitz transform is performed by simply using the... |

145 | Lighthouses for scalable distributed location
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- 2003
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Citation Context ...or XenoSearch we may have hosts not participating in the overlay to deal with, so entrusting 3 the measurements and calculations to the measured hosts can not be used, as it was by GNP and lighthouse =-=[11]-=-. Instead the Positioning Servers measure the latency, connected by an overlay network, and we introduce a load balancing system to make sure Positioning Servers do not get overloaded. We allow Positi... |

134 | Big-bang simulation for embedding network distances in euclidean space
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- 2003
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...been used to place nodes on overlays [17]; we use this for co-ordinate calculation as was also suggested in [2, 3]. The spring model was also used as a first stage for the work on Big Bang simulation =-=[12]-=-, but this scheme also goes on to use more complex vector fields than the one produced with the spring model. The most similar work to ours is the PIC system [1], which was developed to allow more eff... |

117 |
Estimating latency between arbitrary Internet end hosts
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Citation Context ...gy for the network. A query for a distance between two hosts is then satisfied as the latency from the Address Prefix of each host to the nearest tracer and the distance in the virtual topology. King =-=[5]-=-, alternatively, uses authoritative DNS name servers close to hosts to estimate the latency between two hosts, by bouncing a recursive query of one DNS server to the other. 4 3 Calculation Engines The... |

115 | Constructing Internet coordinate system based on delay measurement
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Citation Context ...stance to 20 landmarks as the co-ordinate vector. This high dimensional vector is then reduced to 7-9 dimensions by a global transformation calculated by Principle Component Analysis (PCA). Similarly =-=[8]-=- also uses PCA to extract topological information from the distance vector. The simulation of physical springs to calculate relative network positions, with the rest length of the springs being the ob... |

115 | Efficient topology-aware overlay network
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Citation Context ...he distance vector. The simulation of physical springs to calculate relative network positions, with the rest length of the springs being the observed latency has been used to place nodes on overlays =-=[17]-=-; we use this for co-ordinate calculation as was also suggested in [2, 3]. The spring model was also used as a first stage for the work on Big Bang simulation [12], but this scheme also goes on to use... |

60 | Practical, distributed network coordinates
- Cox, Dabek, et al.
- 2003
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ative network positions, with the rest length of the springs being the observed latency has been used to place nodes on overlays [17]; we use this for co-ordinate calculation as was also suggested in =-=[2, 3]-=-. The spring model was also used as a first stage for the work on Big Bang simulation [12], but this scheme also goes on to use more complex vector fields than the one produced with the spring model. ... |

40 | Xenosearch: Distributed resource discovery in the xenoserver open platform
- Spence, Harris
- 2003
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...m the actual co-ordinate calculation based on GNP, Lighthouse and spring based systems and show our implementations of the various algorithms give similar prediction errors. 1 Introduction XenoSearch =-=[13]-=- is the initial Resource Discovery (RD) system which is being developed for the XenoServer Open Platform. For a full explanation of the XenoServer Open Platform see the companion paper [6]. The XenoSe... |

36 | Controlling the XenoServer Open Platform
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(Show Context)
Citation Context ...XenoSearch [13] is the initial Resource Discovery (RD) system which is being developed for the XenoServer Open Platform. For a full explanation of the XenoServer Open Platform see the companion paper =-=[6]-=-. The XenoSearch system is required to locate the best possible XenoServer to run a particular task on, out of the approximately ten thousand envisioned XenoServers. The primary motivating attribute i... |

19 | Scalable cooperative latency estimation
- Szymaniak, Pierre, et al.
- 2004
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... solve a number of the scalability issues of the GNP system by allowing any previously positioned server to act as a “lighthouse”. Further scalability issues have been addressed with the SCoLE sys=-=tem [15]-=-, which introduces clustering on the BGP Address Prefix and does not require the participating hosts to agree on a global basis. Virtual Landmarks [16] is a further development of the basic GNP idea. ... |

15 | K.,”Calculation of Mappings Between One and n-dimensional Values Using the Hilbert Space-filling Curve,” Research Report BBKCS00-01 (formerly JL1/00
- Lawder
- 2000
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...nsions) for each dimension as the input to a Hilbert-transformation to a single d ∗ ⌊128/d⌋ bit integer. This is used as the top bits of the 128 bit nodeId. The algorithm used is the one describ=-=ed in [7]-=-. The Hilbert mapping gives clustering: when points are close on the Hilbert curve they tend to be close in real space. In fact the clustering is such that the d-dimensional space is split into 2 d eq... |

15 |
The Stationarity of Internet
- Zhang, Paxson, et al.
- 2000
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...Section 9 concludes. 2 Related Work The work in this area is based on the assumption that network latency is a quantity that is not constant over long timescales and this is backed-up by work such as =-=[18]-=-. Given this assumption coordinate based location systems make sense. The idea of co-ordinate based location systems was first put forward in the GNP [10]. In this casesSimplex Downhill Error minimisa... |

10 |
Learning Euclidean coordinates for Internet hosts
- Cox, Dabek
- 2002
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ative network positions, with the rest length of the springs being the observed latency has been used to place nodes on overlays [17]; we use this for co-ordinate calculation as was also suggested in =-=[2, 3]-=-. The spring model was also used as a first stage for the work on Big Bang simulation [12], but this scheme also goes on to use more complex vector fields than the one produced with the spring model. ... |

1 |
Pic: Practical internet coordinates fo distance estimation
- costa, Castro, et al.
- 2003
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...e for the work on Big Bang simulation [12], but this scheme also goes on to use more complex vector fields than the one produced with the spring model. The most similar work to ours is the PIC system =-=[1]-=-, which was developed to allow more efficient building of Pastry overlays. It is similar to lighthouse but also, like our work, incorporates a P2P overlay so the other peers can be found. Location sys... |