## Quantum Cryptography Over Underground Optical Fibers (1996)

Venue: | Advances in Cryptology --- Proceedings of Crypto '96 |

Citations: | 15 - 0 self |

### BibTeX

@INPROCEEDINGS{Hughes96quantumcryptography,

author = {R.J. Hughes and G.G. Luther and G.L. Morgan and C. G. Peterson and C. Simmons},

title = {Quantum Cryptography Over Underground Optical Fibers},

booktitle = {Advances in Cryptology --- Proceedings of Crypto '96},

year = {1996},

pages = {329--342},

publisher = {Springer -- Verlag}

}

### Years of Citing Articles

### OpenURL

### Abstract

Quantum cryptography is an emerging technology in which two parties may simultaneously generate shared, secret cryptographic key material using the transmission of quantum states of light whose security is based on the inviolability of the laws of quantum mechanics. An adversary can neither successfully tap the key transmissions, nor evade detection, owing to Heisenberg's uncertainty principle. In this paper we describe the theory of quantum cryptography, and the most recent results from our experimental system with which we are generating key material over 14km of underground optical fiber. These results demonstrate that opticalfiber based quantum cryptography could allow secure, real-time key generation over "open" multi-km node-to-node optical fiber communications links between secure "islands." 1. Introduction Two of the main goals of cryptography (encryption and authentication of messages) can be accomplished, with provable security, if the sender ("Alice") and recipi...

### Citations

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Citation Context ...er in the late 1970s, who proposed that if single-quantum states could be stored for long periods of time they could be used as counterfeit-proof money. Wiesner eventually published his ideas in 1983,=-=[3]-=- but they were of largely academic interest owing to the impracticality of isolating a quantum state from the environment for long time periods. However, Bennett and Brassard realized that instead of ... |

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Citation Context ...ealized that instead of using single quanta for information storage they could be used for information transmission. In 1984 they published the first quantum cryptography protocol now known as “BB84=-=”.[4] A f-=-urther advance in theoretical quantum cryptography took place in 1991 when Ekert proposed[5] that Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) “entangled” two-particle states could be used to implement a quantum... |

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Citation Context ...lities. Starting in 1989, Bennett, Brassard and collaborators demonstrated that QKD was potentially practical by constructing a working prototype system for the BB84 protocol, using polarized photons.=-=[6] Alt-=-hough the propagation distance was only about 30 cm, this experiment is in several ways still the most thorough demonstration of quantum cryptography. In 1992 Bennett published a “minimal” QKD sch... |

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Citation Context ...quantum state from interactions with the “environment.”) Next, Bob makes a polarization measurement on each photon he receives, according to the value of his bit as given by: " 0" ´ -45=-=∞ " 1" ´ H 5 , (2) and records the r-=-esult (“pass” = Y, “fail” = N). Note that Bob will never record a “pass” if his bit is different from Alice’s (crossed polarizers), and that he records a “pass” on 50% of the bits th... |

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Citation Context ...mation transmission. In 1984 they published the first quantum cryptography protocol now known as “BB84”.[4] A further advance in theoretical quantum cryptography took place in 1991 when Ekert prop=-=osed[5] that -=-Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) “entangled” two-particle states could be used to implement a quantum cryptography protocol whose security was based on Bell’s inequalities. Starting in 1989, Bennet... |

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Citation Context ...hy. In 1992 Bennett published a “minimal” QKD scheme (“B92”) and proposed that it could be implemented using single-photon interference with photons propagating for long distances over optical=-= fibers.[7]-=- Since then, experimental groups in the UK,[8] Switzerland[9] and the USA[10, 11] have developed optical fiber-based prototype QKD systems. The aim of these experiments has been to show the conceptual... |

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Citation Context ...and proposed that it could be implemented using single-photon interference with photons propagating for long distances over optical fibers.[7] Since then, experimental groups in the UK,[8] Switzerland=-=[9]-=- and the USA[10, 11] have developed optical fiber-based prototype QKD systems. The aim of these experiments has been to show the conceptual feasibility of QKD, rather than to produce the definitive sy... |

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Citation Context ...ove errors arising from experimental imperfections. This can then be followed by a further stage of “privacy amplification” to reduce any partial knowledge acquired by Eve to an arbitrarily low le=-=vel.[12] Tra-=-ditionally it has been proposed that the key bits generated by QKD should be used for the encryption of communications using the unbreakable “onetime pad” method. However, the key material could e... |

2 |
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Citation Context ...scheme (“B92”) and proposed that it could be implemented using single-photon interference with photons propagating for long distances over optical fibers.[7] Since then, experimental groups in the=-= UK,[8]-=- Switzerland[9] and the USA[10, 11] have developed optical fiber-based prototype QKD systems. The aim of these experiments has been to show the conceptual feasibility of QKD, rather than to produce th... |

2 |
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Citation Context ...at it could be implemented using single-photon interference with photons propagating for long distances over optical fibers.[7] Since then, experimental groups in the UK,[8] Switzerland[9] and the USA=-=[10, 11]-=- have developed optical fiber-based prototype QKD systems. The aim of these experiments has been to show the conceptual feasibility of QKD, rather than to produce the definitive system, or to address ... |

2 | et al., “Photon Counting Using Passively Quenched Germanium Avalanche Photodiodes - Owens - 1994 |