## Interactive Physically-Based Manipulation of Discrete/Continuous Models (1995)

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Citations: | 26 - 1 self |

### BibTeX

@MISC{Harada95interactivephysically-based,

author = {Mikako Harada and Andrew Witkin and David Baraff},

title = {Interactive Physically-Based Manipulation of Discrete/Continuous Models},

year = {1995}

}

### Years of Citing Articles

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### Abstract

Physically-based modeling has been used in the past to support a variety of interactive modeling tasks including free-form surface design, mechanism design, constrained drawing, and interactive camera control. In these systems, the user interacts with the model by exerting virtual forces, to which the system responds subject to the active constraints. In the past, this kind of interaction has been applicable only to models that are governed by continuous parameters. In this paper we present an extension to mixed continuous /discrete models, emphasizing constrained layout problems that arise in architecture and other domains. When the object being dragged is blocked from further motion by geometric constraints, a local discrete search is triggered, during which transformations such as swapping of adjacent objects may be performed. The result of the search is a "nearby" state in which the target object has been moved in the indicated direction and in which all constraints are satisfied. ...

### Citations

3310 | Snakes: Active contour models
- Kass, Witkin, et al.
- 1988
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...r interaction with a variety of graphical models. In computer vision and image analysis, quasi-physical active contour models known as snakes are widely used for interactive edge finding and tracking =-=[14]. Snakes a-=-re essentially simulated springy "wires" that are attracted to edge features in images, and simultaneously subjected to manipulation forces imposed by the user. The use of constrained dynami... |

239 | Fast contact force computation for nonpenetrating rigid bodies
- Baraff
- 1994
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...m (q(t)) # 0 where each function C i is a scalar function of state, q. The evolution of this type of constrained system over time exactly parallels work on physical simulation of impenetrable objects =-=[2]-=-; accordingly, we cast the continuous manipulation of our models as a problem in constrained physical simulation. Assuming that the model's initial state q(t 0 ) satisfies C (q(t 0 )) # 0 for 1 # i # ... |

224 |
1986]: The Variational Principles of Mechanics
- Lanczos
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... F c (t) that interferes with the user's applied force as little as possible. Treating our manipulation problem as a physical problem, we choose F c (t) to be a workless, compressive constraint force =-=[19]-=-. At any particular time t, such a constraint force depends on the applied force F a (t) and the set of active constraints. A constraint C i is said to be active at time t if C i (q(t)) = 0. The workl... |

204 | Analytical methods for dynamic simulation of non-penetrating rigid bodies
- Baraff
- 1989
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...es an active constraint at this time, and a more accurate projection of q(t +#t) can be computed. The process is the same as the collision-resolution processes employed in physical simulation systems =-=[1]-=-. 4 Discrete Manipulation We wish to extend the paradigm of continuous physically-based interaction to allow the state of the system to undergo discrete structural change in response to the user's act... |

171 | Variational surface modeling
- Welch, Witkin
- 1992
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ate simulated objects subject to constraints. This approach has been applied to animation, image analysis, drawing, free-form surface modeling, mechanical design, and interactive molecular simulation =-=[29, 28, 30, 5, 31, 33, 27]-=-. Despite its successes, this approach has been subject to the severe limitation that it only supports manipulation of systems govAuthor's affiliations: Mikako Harada, (mh3i@andrew.cmu.edu), Departmen... |

134 | Through-the-lens camera control
- Gleicher, Witkin
- 1992
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... also been extensively investigated [29, 28, 30, 5, 31, 33]. Constrained dynamics simulations have also been used to support drawing applications [11] and for interactive camera control for animation =-=[10]-=-. Surles [27] describes 1 Shape grammars in their original form could not be implemented directly, due to problems of ambiguity. Several additional formalisms were introduced on which system implement... |

121 | Symmetry-seeking models and 3D object reconstruction
- Terzopoulos, AWitkin, et al.
- 1987
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ate simulated objects subject to constraints. This approach has been applied to animation, image analysis, drawing, free-form surface modeling, mechanical design, and interactive molecular simulation =-=[29, 28, 30, 5, 31, 33, 27]-=-. Despite its successes, this approach has been subject to the severe limitation that it only supports manipulation of systems govAuthor's affiliations: Mikako Harada, (mh3i@andrew.cmu.edu), Departmen... |

111 | Fast animation and control of nonrigid structures
- Witkin, Welch
- 1990
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ate simulated objects subject to constraints. This approach has been applied to animation, image analysis, drawing, free-form surface modeling, mechanical design, and interactive molecular simulation =-=[29, 28, 30, 5, 31, 33, 27]-=-. Despite its successes, this approach has been subject to the severe limitation that it only supports manipulation of systems govAuthor's affiliations: Mikako Harada, (mh3i@andrew.cmu.edu), Departmen... |

107 |
Deformable curve and surface finite-elements for free-form shape design
- Celniker, Gossard
- 1991
(Show Context)
Citation Context |

96 | Interactive dynamics
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(Show Context)
Citation Context ...tures in images, and simultaneously subjected to manipulation forces imposed by the user. The use of constrained dynamics simulations for interactive geometric modeling was described by Witkin et al. =-=[32]-=-. Flexiblesurface simulations for interactive computer vision and free-form surface modeling are areas that have also been extensively investigated [29, 28, 30, 5, 31, 33]. Constrained dynamics simula... |

95 |
Introduction to shape and shape grammars. Environment and Planning B
- Stiny
- 1980
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ctive manipulation. The second portion of this section reviews this prior work. 2.1 Shape Grammars in Architecture Shape grammars were first introduced to architecture by Stiny and Gips in the 1970's =-=[25, 24]-=-. Since then, shape grammars have been used theoretically to describe the historical style of architectural designs [26, 7, 17] and to specify new forms [15]. Shape grammars are appealing to architect... |

93 |
User’s Guide for NPSOL (Version 4.0): A Fortran package for nonlinear programming
- Gill, Murray, et al.
- 1986
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... constraints, we then perform a numerical constraint solution in an effort to meet the applicable continuous geometric constraints, using a general purpose continuous constrained optimization program =-=[9]-=-. Since we are making incremental changes, the previous geometric parameter values generally give good initial estimates for finding a new state that satisfies the constraints. Of the states that sati... |

62 | Shape Grammars and the Generative Specification of Painting and Sculpture
- Stiny, Gips
- 1972
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ctive manipulation. The second portion of this section reviews this prior work. 2.1 Shape Grammars in Architecture Shape grammars were first introduced to architecture by Stiny and Gips in the 1970's =-=[25, 24]-=-. Since then, shape grammars have been used theoretically to describe the historical style of architectural designs [26, 7, 17] and to specify new forms [15]. Shape grammars are appealing to architect... |

60 |
Simulated Annealing for VLSI Design
- Wong, Leong, et al.
- 1988
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...raints, and may also involve aesthetic or other subjective criteria. Floor planning problems have long been investigated [12] and are of particular interest in architecture [22, 6, 8] and VLSI design =-=[34, 20, 35]-=-. In this section, we describe the implementation of a system for attacking this class of floor layout problem interactively. After showing examples, we describe the results of our experiments. 5.1 Im... |

45 |
The language of the prairie: Frank Lloyd Wright’s prairie houses. Environment and Planning B
- Koning, Eizenberg
- 1981
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...mmars were first introduced to architecture by Stiny and Gips in the 1970's [25, 24]. Since then, shape grammars have been used theoretically to describe the historical style of architectural designs =-=[26, 7, 17]-=- and to specify new forms [15]. Shape grammars are appealing to architecture researchers because they are visual, and because they offer a formal mechanism for capturing the previously vague and ambig... |

38 |
Physical modeling with b-spline surfaces for interactive design and animation
- Thingvold, Cohen
- 1990
(Show Context)
Citation Context |

35 |
Constraints on deformable models: recovering shape and non-rigid motion
- Terzopoulos, Witkin
- 1988
(Show Context)
Citation Context |

30 |
Interactive simulation of solid rigid bodies
- Baraff
- 1995
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...t 6--11 COMPUTER GRAPHICS Proceedings, Annual Conference Series, 1995 a system for interactive molecular simulations. Interactive simulations that include contact constraints were described by Baraff =-=[3]-=-; the continuous simulation techniques in this paper most closely follow that work. 3 Continuous Manipulation During any interval of time in which the discrete variables of the model stay fixed, the m... |

27 | More than the sum of parts: the grammar of .Queen Anne Houses, Environ
- Flemming
- 1987
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...mmars were first introduced to architecture by Stiny and Gips in the 1970's [25, 24]. Since then, shape grammars have been used theoretically to describe the historical style of architectural designs =-=[26, 7, 17]-=- and to specify new forms [15]. Shape grammars are appealing to architecture researchers because they are visual, and because they offer a formal mechanism for capturing the previously vague and ambig... |

23 |
Style in Design
- Simon
- 1975
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...e of the essential elements in defining an artistic style. In the rich combinatorial space of design, an artist's method of selective search through that space is thought to be a key element of style =-=[23]-=-. Our last example focuses on images from abstract painting. This example is taken from Knight [16], who has analyzed stylistic changes in the paintings by De Stijl artists. The purpose of this exampl... |

22 |
An Algorithm with Linear Complexity for Interactive, Physically-based Modeling
- Surles
- 1992
(Show Context)
Citation Context |

18 |
Synthesis and optimization of small rectangular floor plans, Environment and Planning
- Mitchell, Steadman, et al.
- 1976
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...zation subject to the constraints, and may also involve aesthetic or other subjective criteria. Floor planning problems have long been investigated [12] and are of particular interest in architecture =-=[22, 6, 8]-=- and VLSI design [34, 20, 35]. In this section, we describe the implementation of a system for attacking this class of floor layout problem interactively. After showing examples, we describe the resul... |

16 |
The Palladian grammar, Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design 5
- Stiny, Mitchell
- 1978
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...mmars were first introduced to architecture by Stiny and Gips in the 1970's [25, 24]. Since then, shape grammars have been used theoretically to describe the historical style of architectural designs =-=[26, 7, 17]-=- and to specify new forms [15]. Shape grammars are appealing to architecture researchers because they are visual, and because they offer a formal mechanism for capturing the previously vague and ambig... |

10 |
Drawing with constraints. Visual Computer 11:39–51
- Gleicher, Witkin
- 1994
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ion and free-form surface modeling are areas that have also been extensively investigated [29, 28, 30, 5, 31, 33]. Constrained dynamics simulations have also been used to support drawing applications =-=[11]-=- and for interactive camera control for animation [10]. Surles [27] describes 1 Shape grammars in their original form could not be implemented directly, due to problems of ambiguity. Several additiona... |

9 |
Generative Geometric Design and Boundary Solid Grammars
- Heisserman
- 1991
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...e of rule applications. The hope is that relatively simple rule sets can be devised that capture some aspect of architectural style, for example, generating designs for all and only Queen Anne Houses =-=[13]-=-. Several computer programs have been developed based on the theoretical foundation of shape grammars. 1 These systems have been used to demonstrate grammars representing floor plan layouts [8], frami... |

7 |
Transformations of De Stijl art: The paintings of Georges Vantongerloo and Fritz Glarner,” Environment and Planning B: Planning and design 16
- Knight
- 1989
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...n, an artist's method of selective search through that space is thought to be a key element of style [23]. Our last example focuses on images from abstract painting. This example is taken from Knight =-=[16], who has -=-analyzed stylistic changes in the paintings by De Stijl artists. The purpose of this example is to show the usefulness of exploratory manipulation as a tool to study "styles." Knight studied... |

4 |
A global floor-planning approach for VLSI design
- Mason
- 1986
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...raints, and may also involve aesthetic or other subjective criteria. Floor planning problems have long been investigated [12] and are of particular interest in architecture [22, 6, 8] and VLSI design =-=[34, 20, 35]-=-. In this section, we describe the implementation of a system for attacking this class of floor layout problem interactively. After showing examples, we describe the results of our experiments. 5.1 Im... |

4 | Methods for the Computer-Implemented Solution of a Class of \Floor Plan - Grason - 1970 |

3 |
Structure grammars and their application to design
- Carlson
- 1989
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ribes 1 Shape grammars in their original form could not be implemented directly, due to problems of ambiguity. Several additional formalisms were introduced on which system implementations were based =-=[4, 13]. Hencefor-=-th we use "shape grammar" in the broader sense of these extended geometric grammars. 2 SIGGRAPH 95, Los Angeles, August 6--11 COMPUTER GRAPHICS Proceedings, Annual Conference Series, 1995 a ... |

3 |
Wall representations of rectangular dissections and their use in automated space allocation. Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design
- Flemming
- 1978
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...zation subject to the constraints, and may also involve aesthetic or other subjective criteria. Floor planning problems have long been investigated [12] and are of particular interest in architecture =-=[22, 6, 8]-=- and VLSI design [34, 20, 35]. In this section, we describe the implementation of a system for attacking this class of floor layout problem interactively. After showing examples, we describe the resul... |

3 |
Designing with grammars
- Knight
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ecture by Stiny and Gips in the 1970's [25, 24]. Since then, shape grammars have been used theoretically to describe the historical style of architectural designs [26, 7, 17] and to specify new forms =-=[15]. Shape gr-=-ammars are appealing to architecture researchers because they are visual, and because they offer a formal mechanism for capturing the previously vague and ambiguous notion of "style." The ba... |

3 |
Integrating shape grammars and design analysis
- Mitchell, Liggett, et al.
- 1991
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...uter programs have been developed based on the theoretical foundation of shape grammars. 1 These systems have been used to demonstrate grammars representing floor plan layouts [8], framing structures =-=[21]-=-, and a class of building designs [13]. Interacting with grammar-based systems has been problematic. The only means of exploring the discrete space of designs defined by a grammar has been sequential ... |

2 |
Methods for the Computer-Implemented Solution of a Class of "Floor Plan
- Grason
- 1970
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...s with the application, but often involves an optimization subject to the constraints, and may also involve aesthetic or other subjective criteria. Floor planning problems have long been investigated =-=[12]-=- and are of particular interest in architecture [22, 6, 8] and VLSI design [34, 20, 35]. In this section, we describe the implementation of a system for attacking this class of floor layout problem in... |

1 |
A design system with multiple abstraction capabilities
- Flemming, Coyne
- 1990
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ouses [13]. Several computer programs have been developed based on the theoretical foundation of shape grammars. 1 These systems have been used to demonstrate grammars representing floor plan layouts =-=[8]-=-, framing structures [21], and a class of building designs [13]. Interacting with grammar-based systems has been problematic. The only means of exploring the discrete space of designs defined by a gra... |

1 |
The equivalence of the subregion representation and the wall representation for a certain class of rectangular dissections
- Kundu
- 1988
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...e can be defined by a subregion tree in which nonterminal nodes represent either horizontal or vertical subdivisions, and leaf nodes represent the final rectangles that comprise the dissection. Kundu =-=[18]-=- gives a detailed description of subregion trees. A rectangular dissection and its subregion tree are shown in figure 1a. The chief advantage of this representation is that it guarantees a non-overlap... |

1 |
Pioneer: a macrobased floor-planning design system
- Woo, Wong, et al.
- 1986
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...raints, and may also involve aesthetic or other subjective criteria. Floor planning problems have long been investigated [12] and are of particular interest in architecture [22, 6, 8] and VLSI design =-=[34, 20, 35]-=-. In this section, we describe the implementation of a system for attacking this class of floor layout problem interactively. After showing examples, we describe the results of our experiments. 5.1 Im... |