## Controversies in the History of the Radiation Reaction problem in General Relativity (1997)

Citations: | 4 - 0 self |

### BibTeX

@MISC{Kennefick97controversiesin,

author = {Daniel Kennefick},

title = {Controversies in the History of the Radiation Reaction problem in General Relativity},

year = {1997}

}

### OpenURL

### Abstract

### Citations

101 | Subtle is the Lord: The Science and the Life of Albert Einstein - Pais - 1982 |

73 |
Classical Theory of Fields (Addison-Wesley
- Landau, Lifshitz
- 1951
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...Russian physicists Lev Landau and Evgenii Lifschitz published a back reaction calculation which did treat a binary star system, including its gravitational binding, in the slowmotion weak-field case (=-=Landau and Lifschitz 1951-=-). Their analysis has been influential, although some have felt that it took too much for granted, a problem worsened by the book’s terse style. Although the main topic of the Einstein-Rosen paper had... |

45 | Gravitational waves in general relativity VII. Waves from axi-symmetric isolated systems - Bondi, Metzner - 1962 |

34 |
Gravitational waves in general relativity VIII. Waves in asymptotically flat space-time
- Sachs
- 1962
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...mping remained unsettled. Bondi, who with his collaborators had done much to improve the understanding of wave propagation far from the source (see especially Bondi, van der Burg and Metzner 1962 and =-=Sachs 1962-=-) made this point at the Warsaw conference of 1962 (Bondi 1962). 30 However, there were those, like Feynman, who viewed the relativists’ caution with impatience. Feynman was “surprised to find a whole... |

34 |
Interaction with the absorber as the mechanism of radiation
- Wheeler, Feynman
- 1945
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ion for lack of a sufficiently strong absorber field. In the Wheeler-Feynman theory it is the field of the absorbers, back-reacting on the source, which breaks the time symmetry of the source field. (=-=Wheeler and Feynman, 1945-=- and 1949). However, Rosen’s arguments do not appear completely convincing even to himself, since towards the end of the paper he retreats to a more Tetrode-like position, conceding that an absorber (... |

30 |
Multipole expansions of gravitational radiation
- Thorne
- 1980
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...erstood, 35 and the multipole formalism could be used with confidence in astrophysical applications to give approximate estimates of source strength, much as one would in electromagnetic wave theory (=-=Thorne 1980-=-). This viewpoint however, was sharply opposed by some others who were still seriously dissatisfied with the state of the field. 36 They were particularly concerned that the quadrupole formula would b... |

20 |
Discovery of a pulsar in a binary system
- Hulse, Taylor
- 1975
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...t in this popularity, and seemed likely to continue to grow in practical importance as experimental interest waxed. The discovery of the first binary pulsar (PSR 1913+16) by Hulse and Taylor in 1975 (=-=Hulse and Taylor 1975-=-) crystalized the excitement in the field, providing the first test bed for strong field effects of general relativity, although there were doubts at first that the system would exhibit measurable orb... |

17 |
Näherungsweise Integration der Feldgleichungen der Gravitation
- Einstein
- 1916
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... a paper exploring the physical implications of the final version of his general theory of relativity, Einstein proposed the existence of gravitational radiation as one of its important consequences (=-=Einstein 1916-=-). Although both Maxwell and Poincaré have been cited as anticipating the idea of gravitational waves (Havas 1979 and Damour 1987a), Einstein produced the first concrete description in a relativistic ... |

17 | On Gravitational Waves - Einstein, Rosen - 1937 |

16 |
Gravitational radiation and the motion of compact bodies
- Damour
- 1983
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...other protagonist with an interest in and excellent knowledge of the field’s history was Damour. His papers were often prefaced with a discussion setting his work in a historical context (for example =-=Damour 1982-=-). In this role, the object of history was to motivate the new work being presented, and the focus was on the previous failings which were being addressed by the new contributions (see, for instance, ... |

16 | The gravitational equations and the problem of motion - Einstein, Infeld, et al. - 1938 |

15 |
Zum gegenwärtigen Stand des Strahlungsproblems. Physikalische Zeitschrift
- Einstein, Ritz
- 1909
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ake any sense of it, until a theory which imposed it could be found. Einstein however, felt that time asymmetry had no business in field theories and that its origins lay solely in probability theory(=-=Einstein and Ritz 1909-=-). His views may have influenced Infeld, who preferred the half-advanced-plus-half-retarded potential, with its standing wave solution, as the most natural choice in the EIH approximation. In the case... |

14 |
The problem of motion in Newtonian and Einsteinian gravity,” in Three Hundred Years of Gravitation by
- Damour
- 1990
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...nce of gravitational radiation as one of its important consequences (Einstein 1916). Although both Maxwell and Poincaré have been cited as anticipating the idea of gravitational waves (Havas 1979 and =-=Damour 1987-=-a), Einstein produced the first concrete description in a relativistic field theory. In a subsequent paper of 1918, Einstein corrected some errors in his previous description of the waves, and went on... |

14 | What do you care what other people think? - further adventures of a curious character, Unwin Hyman - Feynman - 1988 |

13 | Gravitational waves in general relativity III. Exact plane waves - Bondi, Pirani - 1959 |

13 |
The seven sexes: A study in the sociology of a phenomenon or the replication of experiments in physics
- Collins
- 1975
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ce, were eventually discounted amidst much controversy, they focused much attention on the subject, and sparked a great increase in the number of experimentalists working on gravitational waves. (See =-=Collins 1975-=- and 1981 for a detailed account, and Franklin 1994 for an alternative viewpoint). On the theoretical front, research in the 1960s on black holes, cosmology and other topics had made the field of rela... |

12 | Albert Einstein: philosopher-scientist - Schilpp - 1951 |

9 |
Radiation and boundary conditions in the theory of gravitation
- Trautman
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...back-reaction effect could not be transformed away, merely moved from one point in the expansion to another. He found positive damping, although differing somewhat from the quadrupole formula result (=-=Trautman 1958-=-a, 1958b). Infeld himself stuck to his earlier opinion, despite the contrary views of his students. In his 1960 book, Motion and Relativity, he included a detailed argument against the existence of ba... |

9 |
Detection and generation of gravitational waves
- Weber
- 1960
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...Weber demonstrated real confidence in the physicality of gravitational waves by embarking within a few years on an experimental program to detect them, using large resonant metal bars as 12antennae (=-=Weber 1960-=-). Quixotic is probably not quite the word contemporary theorists would have used to describe Weber’s aim. 25 The wave theory, in so far as it existed at all, with no particular notion as to potential... |

9 |
Evidence for Discovery of Gravitational Radiation
- Weber
- 1969
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...o sources (Fowler 1964; Robinson, Schild and Schucking 1965 and Cooperstock 1967). Then, to the great surprise of the theoreticians, Weber announced in 1969 that he was detecting gravitational waves (=-=Weber 1969-=-). Although his results, which confounded all theoretical predictions of source strengths then and since, were eventually discounted amidst much controversy, they focused much attention on the subject... |

8 | Gravitational waves in general relativity - Bondi, Burg, et al. - 1962 |

7 |
La dynamique de l’électron. Revue générale des sciences pures et appliquées
- Poincaré
- 1908
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...d suggested that planetary orbits must slowly lose energy to wave emission in the gravitational field and indicated that any such effect would be too small to explain the perihelion shift of Mercury (=-=Poincaré 1908-=-). As early as 1776, Pierre Laplace had considered the problem of an orbital damping force arising from a finite speed of propagation of gravity. His aim was to discover an explanation for the observe... |

6 | Gravitational Radiation Damping - Burke, Thorne - 1969 |

6 | The post-Newtonian equations of Hydrodynamics in General Relativity - Chandrasekhar - 1965 |

6 | Lorentz-invariant equations of motion of point masses in the general theory of relativity,” Phys - Havas, Goldberg - 1962 |

5 | Son of Seven Sexes: The social destruction of a physical phenomenon - Collins - 1981 |

5 | Gravitational Radiation Reaction in the Binary Pulsar and the QuadrupoleFormula Controversy”, Phys - Damour - 1983 |

5 |
Gravitational Radiation in the limit of high frequency II: Nonlinear terms and the Effective Stress Tensor
- Isaacson
- 1968
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ty which described wave energy in a local sense, by averaging over a wavelength of the wave. Thus, using this approach, gravitational wave energy can be localized within a wavelength, but no further (=-=Isaacson 1968-=-). 17 As we shall see, Rosen’s paper was soon answered in a manner convincing to most relativists. He himself revised his opinion on this matter in a letter to the Physical Review (Rosen 1958), after ... |

5 | Reality of the cylindrical gravitational waves of Einstein and - Weber, Wheeler - 1957 |

4 | Zur Theorie binärer Gravitationsfelder” Zeitschrift für Physik 33 - Beck - 1925 |

4 |
An Introduction to the Theory of Gravitational Radiation
- Damour
- 1987
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...nce of gravitational radiation as one of its important consequences (Einstein 1916). Although both Maxwell and Poincaré have been cited as anticipating the idea of gravitational waves (Havas 1979 and =-=Damour 1987-=-a), Einstein produced the first concrete description in a relativistic field theory. In a subsequent paper of 1918, Einstein corrected some errors in his previous description of the waves, and went on... |

4 |
The Second Post-Newtonian Equations of Hydrodynamics in General Relativity”, Astrophys
- Chandrasekhar, Nutku
- 1969
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...the problem. 32 Throughout the 1960s, Chandrasekhar developed his own slow-motion formalism, dealing with extended fluid bodies (as opposed to point masses) at one post-Newtonian order after another (=-=Chandrasekhar 1965-=-). 14By the end of the decade he had advanced far enough in the expansion (to order (v/c) 5 beyond Newtonian order) to describe reaction effects. His conclusion agreed with the quadrupole formula res... |

3 |
Gravitational radiation damping in systems with compact components
- Anderson
- 1987
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...with its surface integral method, and married it to the matched asymptotic expansions of Burke, with further additions of his own, to produce another influential derivation of the quadrupole formula (=-=Anderson 1987-=-). A very significant aspect of the debate in the seventies and eighties was the problem of when theory ends. 41 As we have seen, different authors could look at the same history and give very differe... |

3 | Spherical gravitational waves - Bonnor - 1959 |

3 |
Sur certaines vérifications nouvelles de la Relativité générale rendues possibles par la découverte d’un pulsar membre d’un systéme binaire” Comptes Rendu de l’Academie des Sciences de Paris, series A
- Damour, Ruffini
- 1974
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...tement in the field, providing the first test bed for strong field effects of general relativity, although there were doubts at first that the system would exhibit measurable orbital damping effects (=-=Damour and Ruffini 1974-=-). 34 8 The Quadrupole Formula Controversy The successes in improving the slow motion approximation, and the increasing likelihood of practical applications of gravitational radiation theory encourage... |

3 |
The Propagation of Gravitational Waves
- Eddington
- 1922
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...hypothesis of the day was justified (Laplace 1825). 12 4 Later work on Radiation Arthur Stanley Eddington is associated with the remark that gravitational waves propagate with “the speed of thought” (=-=Eddington 1922-=-). Despite the scepticism this implies, Eddington was arguing only that certain classes of gravity waves, the “transverse-longitudinal” and “longitudinal-longitudinal” waves analyzed by Weyl (1921) an... |

3 | Radiation and Gravitational Equations of Motion - Infeld, Scheidegger - 1951 |

2 | Conservation Laws and Gravitational Waves in General Relativity (1915-1918 - Cattani, Maria - 1993 |

2 | Comments on gravitational radiation damping and energy loss in binary systems - Ehlers - 1976 |

2 |
Massive Stars, Relativistic Polytropes and Gravitational Radiation: Gravitational Waves as Trigger for Radio Galaxy Emissions
- Fowler
- 1964
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...that the subject was maturing and furthermore the prospect of some real astrophysical application for gravity waves, seemed to emerge with the discovery of the quasi-stellar (“quasar”) radio sources (=-=Fowler 1964-=-; Robinson, Schild and Schucking 1965 and Cooperstock 1967). Then, to the great surprise of the theoreticians, Weber announced in 1969 that he was detecting gravitational waves (Weber 1969). Although ... |

2 | How to avoid the experimenters‟ regress - Franklin - 1994 |

2 | US Air Force Support of General Relativity: 1956-1972 - Goldberg - 1988 |

2 | The Early History of the Problem of Motion in General Relativity - Havas - 1989 |

2 | Theories relativistes de la gravitation at d’electromagnetisme - Lichnerowicz - 1955 |

2 | Quasi-stellar sources and gravitational collapse, including the proceedings - Robinson, Alfred, et al. - 1965 |

2 | Energy and Momentum of Cylindrical Gravitational Waves - Rosen, Virbhadra - 1993 |

2 | Son of Seven Sexes: The Social Destruction of a - Collins - 1981 |

2 |
Low water Mark of General Relativity
- Eisenstaedt
- 1986
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...astronomical systems. 96 The Bern and Chapel Hill conferences Between the war and the Bern conference of 1955 marking the 50th anniversary of special relativity, general relativity was at a low ebb (=-=Eisenstaedt 1986-=-a and 1986b). Work on the radiation problem seemed confused and controversial, leading only to some consensus that the problem required closer attention. At the Bern conference Rosen, returning to the... |

2 | The Early History of the “Problem of Motion - Havas - 1989 |

2 |
Lorentz-Invariant Equations of Motion of
- Havas, Goldberg
- 1962
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... method, gave rise to arguments that the approach was hopeless (Bonnor 1963). While conceptually more appealing in some ways, the alternative fast-motion approach, as developed by Havas and Goldberg (=-=Havas and Goldberg 1962-=-) and others (for example, Bertotti and Plebanski 1960, Kerr (1959), Westpfahl (1985)) was also proving frustrating. It was a difficult task to go beyond the leading order corrections to the linearize... |