## Guernic, Data-flow synchronous languages (1994)

Venue: | In A Decade of Concurrency, reflexions and perspectives, REX School/Symposium |

Citations: | 22 - 5 self |

### BibTeX

@INPROCEEDINGS{Benveniste94guernic,data-flow,

author = {Albert Benveniste and Paul Caspi and Paul Le Guernic and Nicolas Halbwachs},

title = {Guernic, Data-flow synchronous languages},

booktitle = {In A Decade of Concurrency, reflexions and perspectives, REX School/Symposium},

year = {1994},

pages = {pages},

publisher = {Springer Verlag}

}

### Years of Citing Articles

### OpenURL

### Abstract

Abstract. In this paper, we present a theory of synchronous data-flow languages. Our theory is supported by both some heuristic analysis of applications and some theoretical investigation of the data-flow paradigm. Our model covers both behavioural and operational aspects, and allows both synchronous and asynchronous styles of implementation for synchronous programs. This model served as a basis to establish the gc common format for synchronous data-flow languages.

### Citations

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Citation Context ...of K . Then, clock(X) shall denote the clock of the signal the operator X . Finally, new clocks are created using true(B) 3 This is in contrast to the more usual model of concurrency via interleaving =-=[25]-=-, where different signals interleave but never occur simultaneously.where B is a boolean signal, by keeping those instants of clock(B) where B is true, this is illustrated on the following diagram : ... |

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Citation Context ...s” x and types Dx ; 6 except for SISAL [13] whose determinism and special control structures lead to avoid both problems. 7 Though this is not particular to data flow programmig: see for instance CCS =-=[26]-=-– “Equations”, i.e., primitive relations over flows 8 Sprimitive(X) ⊆ ∏ D ⋆ x, where X is a finite set of signals and [. . .] ⋆ is the usual star operation ; note that ∏ x∈X D⋆ x involves t-uples of ... |

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Citation Context ...-flow paradigm provides a natural framework for control and signal processing, and more generally, for engineering people. Many attempts have been made to use a data-flow approach in Computer Science =-=[20, 1, 13]-=-, yet not successfully 6 , for two major reasons : – the composition of bounded memory data flow systems may not be bounded memory, see [11], – the composition of equivalent non deterministic data flo... |

556 | The Synchronous Dataflow Programming Language Lustre
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Citation Context ...e [3] and references therein. In this paper, our purpose is to present in a fairly new way the theory supporting the data-flow members of the family of synchronous languages (two instances are Lustre =-=[16]-=- and Signal [24]). The paper is organised as follows. In Section 2, our basic requirements for a synchronous data-flow language are derived from the heuristic analysis of two simple examples. Then Sec... |

515 | Static scheduling of synchronous data flow programs for digital signal processing
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Citation Context ...available at “instant” n), to the very asynchronous one where token based dataflow mechanisms are used. And this simple remark is indeed wellknown in the signal processing community, see for instance =-=[22]-=- [23]. But such a reasoning is better explained by unfolding diagram (2) into the following infinite directed graph : U : u1 → u2 → u3 → u4 → u5 . . . ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ Y : y1 → y2 → y3 → y4 → y5 . . . ↗ ↗ ↗ ... |

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Citation Context ...ds of components are involved, namely : computers running suitable application software, electronics, mechanical and other devices, and human operators. Parallelism, concurrency, and reactive aspects =-=[18, 17, 3, 7]-=-, should be able to encompass those diverse items within a single framework. This makes the requirements for a related theory of concurrency quite different from those for a theory of concurrency conc... |

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Citation Context ...ds of components are involved, namely : computers running suitable application software, electronics, mechanical and other devices, and human operators. Parallelism, concurrency, and reactive aspects =-=[18, 17, 3, 7]-=-, should be able to encompass those diverse items within a single framework. This makes the requirements for a related theory of concurrency quite different from those for a theory of concurrency conc... |

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Citation Context ... ⊥ ⊥ x5 . . . Z : xo ⊥ x1 x2 x3 ⊥ ⊥ x4 . . . The above diagram shows X and pre(X) together with another signal Y possessing a different clock. This example illustrates that stuttering invariance (see =-=[21]-=- and [25], pp. 260–261) is automatically guaranteed, i.e., delaying X does not depend on the environment of X . See also [5] for a more extensive discussion of this.Dependencies and scheduling. Clock... |

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Citation Context ...ociated operational form meets criteria for executability. Developing appropriate techniques for such program rewritings is the core of the compilation theory for data-flow synchronous languages, see =-=[6, 16, 24]-=-. It (fortunately) happens that both our informal analysis of Section 3 and theoretical analysis of Sections 4 and 5 converge to the same solution, namely the definition of the µgc language. In turn, ... |

111 |
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Citation Context ... : – the composition of bounded memory data flow systems may not be bounded memory, see [11], – the composition of equivalent non deterministic data flow systems may not yield equivalent systems, see =-=[10]-=- 7 . So far, several solutions have been brought to both problems, but it does not seem that an effective implementation of these solutions have been provided as actual practical programming tools. No... |

104 |
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Citation Context ...-flow paradigm provides a natural framework for control and signal processing, and more generally, for engineering people. Many attempts have been made to use a data-flow approach in Computer Science =-=[20, 1, 13]-=-, yet not successfully 6 , for two major reasons : – the composition of bounded memory data flow systems may not be bounded memory, see [11], – the composition of equivalent non deterministic data flo... |

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Citation Context ...nces therein. In this paper, our purpose is to present in a fairly new way the theory supporting the data-flow members of the family of synchronous languages (two instances are Lustre [16] and Signal =-=[24]-=-). The paper is organised as follows. In Section 2, our basic requirements for a synchronous data-flow language are derived from the heuristic analysis of two simple examples. Then Section 3 builds on... |

90 |
Hybrid dynamical systems theory and the signal language
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Citation Context ... different clock. This example illustrates that stuttering invariance (see [21] and [25], pp. 260–261) is automatically guaranteed, i.e., delaying X does not depend on the environment of X . See also =-=[5]-=- for a more extensive discussion of this.Dependencies and scheduling. Clocks shall also be used to specify when a dependency holds. For instance, U --> Y at H specifies that Y cannot be produced befo... |

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Citation Context ...g those answers would consist in restricting ourselves to finite types, (maybe by defining finite abstractions of infinite types), and then in restricting ourselves to regular relations. According to =-=[12]-=- a regular relation S(X) can be represented by a finite generalised automaton ∏ — i.e., a finite automaton whose transitions are labelled with elements of x∈X D⋆ x — and the above properties can be fi... |

38 |
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Citation Context ...ent(Xi, Ξi)] ⋆ two programs, and define X = X1 ∪ X2 , Ξ = Ξ1 ∪ Ξ2. Then 12 Π1 | Π2 is the set of minimal π ∈ [ProsEvent(X, Ξ)] ⋆ such that, for i = 1, 2 , ∃πi ∈ Πi(Xi, Ξi) : πi ≤π Φ (X,Ξ)↦→(Xi,Ξi)(π) =-=(19)-=- 12 in the following formula, “minimal” refers to the order ≤π on prossets.The composition “ | ” is associative, commutative, and idempotent (i.e., Π|Π = Π). Example. It is interesting to revisit exa... |

36 |
Clocks in dataflow languages
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Citation Context ...made to use a data-flow approach in Computer Science [20, 1, 13], yet not successfully 6 , for two major reasons : – the composition of bounded memory data flow systems may not be bounded memory, see =-=[11]-=-, – the composition of equivalent non deterministic data flow systems may not yield equivalent systems, see [10] 7 . So far, several solutions have been brought to both problems, but it does not seem ... |

25 |
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Citation Context ...recognisable prefix closed subsets of [PomEvent(X)] ⋆ 10 . ⎞ ⎠ Finally, the parallel composition remains the same as before, namely Π1(X1) | Π2(X2) = Φ −1 X1∪X2↦→X1 (Π1(X1)) ⋂ Φ −1 X1∪X2↦→X2 (Π2(X2)) =-=(8)-=- where Πi(Xi) ⊆ [PomEvent(Xi)] ⋆ , and the ΦX↦→X ′ are restricted to operate on [PomEvent(X)]⋆ instead of [Pomset(X)] ⋆ . Then recognisability is preserved by the inverse morphisms Φ −1 and intersecti... |

19 | V.R.: Partial order models of concurrency and the computation of functions - Gaifman, Pratt - 1987 |

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Citation Context ...anomaly of the same nature as that discussed by Brock and Ackerman in [10], namely a discrepancy between behavioural and operational semantics. Yet, several solutions have been brought to the problem =-=[10, 9, 28]-=-, for instance. Among these, the one which seems to best fit our approach is the original one of Brock and Ackerman, better formalised by several authors, [14, 30], which consists of moving from strin... |

9 |
Real-time systems design and programming. Another look at real-time programming, special section of
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Citation Context ...er explained by unfolding diagram (2) into the following infinite directed graph : U : u1 → u2 → u3 → u4 → u5 . . . ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ Y : y1 → y2 → y3 → y4 → y5 . . . ↗ ↗ ↗ ↗ X : x1 → x2 → x3 → x4 → x5 . . . =-=(3)-=- Now, if this infinite graph is viewed as specifying a partial order on its vertices, then the discussion above becomes clear : the common feature of the above two different execution styles (strongly... |

6 |
A denotational theory of synchronous communicating systems
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Citation Context ...s the semantics of µgc in terms of our model. This does not justify why we have proposed an adequate set of primitives, however. This point is not the subject of our paper, and we refer the reader to =-=[4]-=- for a mathematical justification of the claim that our set of primitives provides maximum expressive power in terms of timing constructs. ⋆ 6 Conclusion In this paper we have presented a synchronous ... |

5 |
Another look at real-time programming, special section of
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Citation Context ...owing graphical description of this formula, also known as a “signal flow graph”, is typically used in control or signal processing communities ( pre denotes the delay operator) : X → pre ↘ ↗ U + → Y =-=(2)-=- Representations (1) and (2) put emphazis on different aspects. Representation (1) is concerned with values of signals, i.e., “behaviours”, and relations that are specified on behaviours via equations... |

5 |
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Citation Context ...ds of components are involved, namely : computers running suitable application software, electronics, mechanical and other devices, and human operators. Parallelism, concurrency, and reactive aspects =-=[18, 17, 3, 7]-=-, should be able to encompass those diverse items within a single framework. This makes the requirements for a related theory of concurrency quite different from those for a theory of concurrency conc... |

4 |
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Citation Context ...anomaly of the same nature as that discussed by Brock and Ackerman in [10], namely a discrepancy between behavioural and operational semantics. Yet, several solutions have been brought to the problem =-=[10, 9, 28]-=-, for instance. Among these, the one which seems to best fit our approach is the original one of Brock and Ackerman, better formalised by several authors, [14, 30], which consists of moving from strin... |

3 |
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Citation Context ...-flow paradigm provides a natural framework for control and signal processing, and more generally, for engineering people. Many attempts have been made to use a data-flow approach in Computer Science =-=[20, 1, 13]-=-, yet not successfully 6 , for two major reasons : – the composition of bounded memory data flow systems may not be bounded memory, see [11], – the composition of equivalent non deterministic data flo... |

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Citation Context ...able at “instant” n), to the very asynchronous one where token based dataflow mechanisms are used. And this simple remark is indeed wellknown in the signal processing community, see for instance [22] =-=[23]-=-. But such a reasoning is better explained by unfolding diagram (2) into the following infinite directed graph : U : u1 → u2 → u3 → u4 → u5 . . . ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ Y : y1 → y2 → y3 → y4 → y5 . . . ↗ ↗ ↗ ↗ X :... |

2 | Consistency in Data--Flow graphs", Research Report UCB/ERL M89/125, Electronics Research Lab., College of - Lee - 1989 |

1 | Real-Time systems design and programming ", Another look at real-time programming, special section of - Benveniste, Berry - 1991 |

1 | The Esterel language", Another look at real-time programming, special section of - Boussinot, Simone - 1991 |

1 |
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Citation Context ... . . . causes this chain to collapse into the absorbing element nil. This particular definition of concatenation plays a central role in “propagating” values through instants, as explained in example =-=(15)-=- to follow. Again, concatenation extends to sets of orders, and together with set theoretic union, allows us to define a [. . .] ⋆ , and [PomEvent(X, Ξ)] ⋆ is a monoid, whose elements are still generi... |

1 |
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Citation Context ...verse items within a single framework. This makes the requirements for a related theory of concurrency quite different from those for a theory of concurrency concentrating only on issues of computing =-=[27]-=-. In this prospective, we are rather seeking for a theory of concurrency for engineering. Such a theory should concentrate on the description of systems, combining both software, and the various plant... |

1 |
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Citation Context ... have been brought to the problem [10, 9, 28], for instance. Among these, the one which seems to best fit our approach is the original one of Brock and Ackerman, better formalised by several authors, =-=[14, 30]-=-, which consists of moving from strings to partial orders. This is what we do next. Synchronous partial orders. Moving our synchronous solution from strings to partial orders is a rather technical but... |