## Epidemic Spreading in Scale-Free Networks (2000)

Citations: | 277 - 11 self |

### BibTeX

@MISC{Pastor-satorras00epidemicspreading,

author = {Romualdo Pastor-satorras and Alessandro Vespignani},

title = {Epidemic Spreading in Scale-Free Networks},

year = {2000}

}

### Years of Citing Articles

### OpenURL

### Abstract

The Internet, as well as many other networks, has a very complex connectivity recently modeled by the class of scale-free networks. This feature, which appears to be very efficient for a communications network, favors at the same time the spreading of computer viruses. We analyze real data from computer virus infections and find the average lifetime and prevalence of viral strains on the Internet. We define a dynamical model for the spreading of infections on scale-free networks, finding the absence of an epidemic threshold and its associated critical behavior. This new epidemiological framework rationalize data of computer viruses and could help in the understanding of other spreading phenomena on communication and social networks. PACS numbers: 05.70.Ln, 05.50.+q Typeset using REVT E X 1 Many social, biological, and communication systems can be properly described by complex networks whose nodes represent individuals or organizations, and links mimic the interactions amo...

### Citations

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Citation Context ... of great interest to inspect the effect of their features on epidemic and disease spreading [7], and more in general in the context of the nonequilibrium phase transitions typical of these phenomena =-=[8]-=-. The study of epidemics on these networks finds an immediate practical application in the understanding of computer virus spreading [9,10], and could also be relevant to the fields of epidemiology [1... |

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Citation Context ...8]. The study of epidemics on these networks finds an immediate practical application in the understanding of computer virus spreading [9,10], and could also be relevant to the fields of epidemiology =-=[11]-=- and pollution control [12]. In this Letter, we analyze data from real computer virus epidemics, providing a statistical characterization that points out the importance of incorporating the peculiar t... |

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Citation Context ...VTEX 1Many social, biological, and communication systems can be properly described by complex networks whose nodes represent individuals or organizations, and links mimic the interactions among them =-=[1,2]-=-. Particularly interesting examples are the Internet and the world-wide-web, which have been extensively studied because of their technological and economical relevance [3–5]. These studies have revea... |

2 |
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Citation Context ...on these networks finds an immediate practical application in the understanding of computer virus spreading [9,10], and could also be relevant to the fields of epidemiology [11] and pollution control =-=[12]-=-. In this Letter, we analyze data from real computer virus epidemics, providing a statistical characterization that points out the importance of incorporating the peculiar topology of scale-free netwo... |

1 |
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(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ith an exponent γ that ranges between 2 and 3. The importance of local clustering is indeed the key ingredient in the modeling of these networks with the recent introduction of scale-free (SF) graphs =-=[6]-=-. In view of the wide occurrence of complex networks in nature it is of great interest to inspect the effect of their features on epidemic and disease spreading [7], and more in general in the context... |

1 |
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(Show Context)
Citation Context ...the nonequilibrium phase transitions typical of these phenomena [8]. The study of epidemics on these networks finds an immediate practical application in the understanding of computer virus spreading =-=[9,10]-=-, and could also be relevant to the fields of epidemiology [11] and pollution control [12]. In this Letter, we analyze data from real computer virus epidemics, providing a statistical characterization... |

1 |
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Citation Context ...act that all virus strains qualitatively show the same statistical features indicates that very likely all of them 4spread on networks with connectivity properties analogous to those of the Internet =-=[19]-=-. It is then natural to foresee that scale-free properties should be included in a theory of epidemic spreading of computer viruses. To address the effects of scale-free connectivity in epidemic sprea... |

1 | t (months) -2 -1 P s (t) boot file macro t = 14 months t = 7 months FIG. 1. Surviving probability for viruses in the wild. The 814 different viruses analyzed have been grouped in three main strains [9]: file viruses infect a computer when running an infec - FIGURES |

1 |
10 10 −1 τ = 14 months boot file macro P s (t) 10 −2 τ = 7 months t (months) FIG. 1. Surviving probability for viruses in the wild. The 814 different viruses analyzed have been grouped in three main strains [9]: file viruses infect a computer when running
- Pastor-Satorras, Vespignani, et al.
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...the predicted dependence upon k of Eq.(2) (see Fig. 3b). It is also worth remarking that the present framework can be generalized to networks with 2 < γ ≤ 3, recovering qualitatively the same results =-=[21]-=-. The emerging picture for epidemic spreading in complex networks emphasizes the role of topology in epidemic modeling. In particular, the absence of epidemic threshold and critical behavior in a wide... |