@MISC{_(a)out, author = {}, title = {(A) OUT OF FREQUENCY LOCK AND PHASE LOCK}, year = {} }

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Abstract

A phase-locked loop is a feedback system combining a voltage controlled oscillator (VCO) and a phase comparator so connected that the oscillator maintains a constant phase angle relative to a reference signal. Phase-locked loops can be used, for example, to generate stable output high frequency signals from a fixed low-frequency signal. Figure 1A shows the basic model for a PLL. The PLL can be analyzed as a negative feedback system using Laplace Transform theory with a forward gain term, G(s), and a feedback term, H(s), as shown in Figure 1B. The usual equations for a negative feedback system apply.