## A generalized composition algorithm for weighted finite-state transducers

Venue: | in Proc. of Interspeech, 2009 |

Citations: | 13 - 7 self |

### BibTeX

@INPROCEEDINGS{Allauzen_ageneralized,

author = {Cyril Allauzen and Michael Riley and Johan Schalkwyk},

title = {A generalized composition algorithm for weighted finite-state transducers},

booktitle = {in Proc. of Interspeech, 2009},

year = {},

pages = {1203--1206}

}

### OpenURL

### Abstract

This paper describes a weighted finite-state transducer composition algorithm that generalizes the concept of the composition filter and presents filters that remove useless epsilon paths and push forward labels and weights along epsilon paths. This filtering permits the compostion of large speech recognition contextdependent lexicons and language models much more efficiently in time and space than previously possible. We present experiments on Broadcast News and a spoken query task that demonstrate an ∼5 % to 10 % overhead for dynamic, runtime composition compared to a static, offline composition of the recognition transducer. To our knowledge, this is the first such system with so little overhead.

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Citation Context ...R that has a permutation of rows that results in columns with consecutive ones is said to have the Consecutive One’s Property (C1P). The problem has been extensively studied and has many applications =-=[5, 6, 7, 8]-=-. There are linear algorithms to find a permutation if it exists; the first, due to Booth and Lucker, was based on PQ-trees [5]. There are approximate algorithms when an exact solution does not exist ... |

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Citation Context ...h system with so little overhead. Index Terms: WFST, LVCSR 1. Introduction Weighted finite-state transducers (WFST)s have been shown to be a general and efficient representation in speech recognition =-=[1]-=-. They have been used to represent a language model G (an automaton over words), the phonetic lexicon L (a CI-phone-toword transducer), and the context-dependency specification C (a CD-phone to CI-pho... |

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Citation Context ...antially without further increase in CPU. This allows us to explore substantially bigger language models in the first pass of the recognizer. 4. Discussion In related prior work, Caseiro and Trancoso =-=[2]-=- developed a specialized composition with the lexicon L. In particular, they observed that if the word pronunciations were stored in a trie, the words that can be read per node form a lexicographic in... |

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Citation Context ...ion algorithm, Section 3 describes large-vocabulary speech recognition experiments using various static and dynamic transducer constructions. Section 4 compares our approach to related work by others =-=[2, 3, 4]-=-. 2. Composition Algorithm A detailed description of weighted finite-state transducers - their theory, algorithms and applications to speech recognition - is given in [1]. The presentation here is lim... |

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Citation Context ... ′ 2], q ′ 3) has not been found previously, it is added to Q and inserted in S (lines 11-13). The composition algorithm presented here and several simple filters are available in the OpenFst library =-=[10]-=-. WEIGHTED-COMPOSITION(T1, T2) 1 Q ← I ← S ← I1 × I2 × {i3} 2 while S ̸= ∅ do 3 (q1, q2, q3) ← HEAD(S) 4 DEQUEUE(S) 5 if (q1, q2, q3) ∈ F1 × F2 × Q3 then 6 F ← F ∪ {(q1, q2, q3)} 7 ρ(q1, q2, q3) ← ρ1(... |