## Verus: a tool for quantitative analysis of finite-state real-time systems (1995)

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Venue: | In Proc. Workshop on Languages, Compilers and Tools for Real-Time Systems |

Citations: | 29 - 11 self |

### BibTeX

@INPROCEEDINGS{Campos95verus:a,

author = {S. Campos and E. Clarke and W. Marrero and M. Minea},

title = {Verus: a tool for quantitative analysis of finite-state real-time systems},

booktitle = {In Proc. Workshop on Languages, Compilers and Tools for Real-Time Systems},

year = {1995}

}

### Years of Citing Articles

### OpenURL

### Abstract

Abstract: Symbolic model checking is a technique for verifying finite-state concurrent systems. Models with up to 10 a ° states can often be verified in minutes. In this paper, we present a new tool to analyze real-time systems, based on this technique. We have designed a language, called Verus, for the description of real-time systems. Such a description is compiled into a state-transition graph and represented symbolically using binary decision diagrams. We have developed new algorithms for exploring the state space and computing quantitative information about the system. In addition to determining the exact bounds on the length of the time interval between two specified events, we compute the number of occurrences of an event in such an interval. This technique allows us to determine performance measures such as schedulability, response time, and system load. Our algorithms produce more detailed information than traditional methods. This information leads to a better understanding of the behavior of the system, in addition to verifying if its timing requirements are satisfied. We integrate these ideas into the Verus tool, currently under development. To demonstrate how our technique works, we have verified a robotics control system. The results obtained demonstrate that our method can be successfully applied in the analysis of realtime system designs. 1

### Citations

3128 | Graph-based algorithms for boolean function manipulation
- Bryant
- 1986
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...rations consider sets of states instead of individual states is one of the main reasons for the efficiency of our method. Moreover, boolean formulas are implemented by binary decision diagrams (BDDs) =-=[1]-=-, enabling the use of efficient algorithms for their manipulation [2]. We consider the minimum delay algorithm first (figure 2). The algorithm takes two sets of states as input, start and final. It re... |

1239 | Automatic verification of finite-state concurrent systems using temporal logic specifications
- Clarke, Emerson, et al.
- 1986
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... model checking, rate monotonic scheduling, quantitative timing analysis, robotics controller 1 Introduction Model checking is a technique for specifying and verifying finite-state concurrent systems =-=[4, 5]-=-. It determines automatically if a system satisfies its specifications. Models with up to 10 30 states can often be verified in minutes by using symbolic techniques [2, 11]. The method has been used s... |

639 | Symbolic Model Checking: 1020 states and beyond
- Burch, Clarke, et al.
- 1992
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...nite-state concurrent systems [4, 5]. It determines automatically if a system satisfies its specifications. Models with up to 1030 states can often be verified in minutes by using symbolic techniques =-=[2, 11]-=-. The method has been used successfully to verify a number of real-world applications. For example, it has been used to find errors in the Futurebus+ cache coherence protocol, adopted as a standard by... |

539 |
Symbolic Model Checking: An Approach to the State Explosion Problem
- McMillan
- 1992
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ite-state concurrent systems [4, 5]. It determines automatically if a system satisfies its specifications. Models with up to 10 30 states can often be verified in minutes by using symbolic techniques =-=[2, 11]-=-. The method has been used successfully to verify a number of real-world applications. For example, it has been used to find errors in the Futurebus+ cache coherence protocol, adopted as a standard by... |

326 |
Symbolic Model Checking: 10 States and Beyond
- Burch, Clarke, et al.
- 1992
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... our method can be successfully applied in the analysis of real-time system designs. 1 Introduction Symbolic model checking is a technique for specifying and verifying finite-state concurrent systems =-=[1, 8]-=-. It determines automatically if a system satisfies its specifications. Models with up to 10 30 states can often be verified in minutes. The method has been used successfully to verify a number of rea... |

204 |
Synthesis of synchronization skeletons for branching time temporal logic
- Clarke, Emerson
- 1981
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... model checking, rate monotonic scheduling, quantitative timing analysis, robotics controller 1 Introduction Model checking is a technique for specifying and verifying finite-state concurrent systems =-=[4, 5]-=-. It determines automatically if a system satisfies its specifications. Models with up to 10 30 states can often be verified in minutes by using symbolic techniques [2, 11]. The method has been used s... |

125 | Quantitative temporal reasoning
- Emerson, Mok, et al.
- 1993
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...d above can be used to analyze its behavior. Moreover, a CTL symbolic model checker [8] is implemented to augment the power of the tool. This model checker has been extended to handle the RTCTL logic =-=[4]-=-, allowing the expression of time bounded properties. To demonstrate how our tools work, we verify a robotics example derived from [7]. The robot we describe is used in nuclear reactors to measure the... |

99 | Verification of the Futurebus+ Cache Coherence Protocol
- Clarke, Grumberg, et al.
- 1993
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...uccessfully to verify a number of real-world applications. For example, it has been used to find errors in the Futurebus+ cache coherence protocol, adopted as a standard by both IEEE and the U.S.Navy =-=[3]-=-. Many real-time systems can be represented by finite-state models. In [2] we have shown how to apply symbolic model checking techniques to analyze finite-state real-time systems. The method presented... |

95 |
Symbolic model checking: states and beyond
- Burch, Clarke, et al.
- 1992
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ite-state concurrent systems [4, 5]. It determines automatically if a system satisfies its specifications. Models with up to 10 30 states can often be verified in minutes by using symbolic techniques =-=[2, 11]-=-. The method has been used successfully to verify a number of real-world applications. For example, it has been used to find errors in the Futurebus+ cache coherence protocol, adopted as a standard by... |

69 |
Timing analysis for fixed-priority scheduling of hard real-time systems
- Harbour, Klein, et al.
- 1994
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...l. This model checker has been extended to handle the RTCTL logic [7], allowing the expression of time bounded properties. To demonstrate how our tools work, we verify a robotics example derived from =-=[10]-=-. The robot we describe is used in nuclear reactors to measure the shapes of pipes by moving around them with a distance sensor. Its controller consists of a set of periodic processes that control eac... |

55 |
Rate Monotonic Analysis for Real-Time Systems
- Sha, Klein, et al.
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... suggest optimizations to the design, and to analyze the performance of these proposed changes. Several other methods for analyzing real-time systems exist. The rate monotonic scheduling theory (RMS) =-=[10, 13]-=- proposes a schedulability test based on total CPU utilization. However, there are a number of limitations on the type of processes that can be analyzed by this method, including restrictions on perio... |

40 | Computing quantitative characteristics of finite-state real-time systems
- Campos, Clarke, et al.
- 1994
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... has been used to find errors in the Futurebus+ cache coherence protocol, adopted as a standard by both IEEE and the U.S.Navy [3]. Many real-time systems can be represented by finite-state models. In =-=[2]-=- we have shown how to apply symbolic model checking techniques to analyze finite-state real-time systems. The method presented in that paper differs significantly from other verification methods. It c... |

32 |
On task s in real-time systems
- Seto, Sha, et al.
- 1996
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ata (in this case between sensor read and sensor control), and between command read and command process. The system description in [10] uses priority inheritance protocols to avoid priority inversion =-=[12]-=-. These protocols change the priority of the tasks at synchronization points, thus dividing the tasks into components. Task P Exec. time D Priority C1 C2 C3 P1 P2 P3 Motor control 40 1 5 - 40 10 7 - S... |

16 |
Rtsl: a language for real-time schedulability analysis
- Fredette, Cleaveland
- 1993
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... this method, including restrictions on periodicity and synchronization. Another approach to schedulability analysis uses algorithms for computing the set of reachable states of a finite-state system =-=[8, 9]-=-. No restrictions are imposed on the model but the algorithm only checks if exceptions can occur or not, and other types of properties can only be verified if encoded as exceptions. A symbolic model c... |

15 | Symbolic model checking for event-driven real-time systems
- Yang, Mok, et al.
- 1997
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ut the algorithm only checks if exceptions can occur or not, and other types of properties can only be verified if encoded as exceptions. A symbolic model checker for real-time systems is proposed in =-=[14]-=-. However, in this approach quantitative information is not generated, and the verifier only determines if the model satisfies a given property or not. By contrast, our analysis method only requires t... |

11 |
A Proof System for Communicating Shared Resource
- Gerber, Lee
- 1990
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... this method, including restrictions on periodicity and synchronization. Another approach to schedulability analysis uses algorithms for computing the set of reachable states of a finite-state system =-=[8, 9]-=-. No restrictions are imposed on the model but the algorithm only checks if exceptions can occur or not, and other types of properties can only be verified if encoded as exceptions. A symbolic model c... |

1 |
RTSL: a language for reM-time schedulability analysis
- Fredette, Cleaveland
- 1993
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... this method, including restrictions on periodicity and synchronization. Another approach to schedulability analysis uses algorithms for computing the set of reachable states of a finite-state system =-=[8, 9]-=-. No restrictions are imposed on the model but the algorithm only checks if exceptions can occur or not, and other types of properties can only be verified if encoded as exceptions. A symbolic model c... |