## A Rearrangeable Algorithm for the Construction of Delay-Constrained Dynamic Multicast Trees (1999)

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Venue: | IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking |

Citations: | 13 - 0 self |

### BibTeX

@ARTICLE{Raghavan99arearrangeable,

author = {Sriram Raghavan and G. Manimaran and C. Siva and Ram Murthy},

title = {A Rearrangeable Algorithm for the Construction of Delay-Constrained Dynamic Multicast Trees},

journal = {IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking},

year = {1999},

volume = {7},

pages = {514--529}

}

### Years of Citing Articles

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### Abstract

With the proliferation of multimedia group applications, the construction of multicast trees satisfying Quality of Service (QoS) requirements is becoming a problem of prime importance. Many of the multicast applications (such as video broadcasts and teleconferencing) require the network to support dynamic multicast sessions wherein the membership of the multicast group changes with time. In this paper, we propose and evaluate an algorithm called CRCDM (Controlled Rearrangement for Constrained Dynamic Multicasting) for on-line update of multicast trees to adjust to changes in group membership. The CRCDM algorithm is based on a concept called Quality Factor (QF) that represents the usefulness of a portion of the multicast tree to the overall multicast session. When the usefulness of a particular region of the tree drops below a threshold, a rearrangement technique is used to suitably modify the tree. Our algorithm aims to satisfy the delay-constraints of all current group members, at the same time minimizing the cost of the constructed tree. We compare the performance of our algorithm, by simulation, with that of an off-line Steiner heuristic; with ARIES [2], a recently published algorithm for on-line update of unconstrained trees; and with the algorithm proposed in [10] for on-line update of delay-constrained trees. The simulation results indicate that our algorithm provides excellent cost-competitiveness that is better than that provided by the algorithm described in [10], minimizes changes in the multicast tree after each update, and performs favorably even when compared with the unconstrained ARIES heuristic. Keywords: Multicast routing, On-line Steiner problem, Dynamic multicast groups, Rearrangement algorithm, QoS, Group communication This work was...

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Citation Context ...known as the on-line multicast problem in networks. The graph-theoretic version of this problem, known as the on-line Steiner problem in networks is NP-complete [9] and has been addressed in [28] and =-=[12]-=-. In the extreme case, the on-line multicast problem can be solved as a sequence of static multicast problems, by rebuilding the tree at each stage using a static Steiner heuristic. However, 1 cost of... |

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Citation Context ..., [25], [17], [29], [11], [22]. There have also been attempts to create multicast trees without resorting to the Steiner-tree based model. Some important alternative approaches include DVMRP [7], PIM =-=[6]-=-, and core-based trees [1]. These approaches are suitable for datagram environments such as the Internet in which the routes taken by multicast packets may vary and where minimization of algorithm ove... |

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Citation Context ... our algorithm, by simulation, with that of an off-line Steiner heuristic; with ARIES [2], a recently published algorithm for on-line update of unconstrained trees; and with the algorithm proposed in =-=[10]-=- for on-line update of delay-constrained trees. The simulation results indicate that our algorithm provides excellent cost-competitiveness that is better than that provided by the algorithm described ... |

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Citation Context ...e tree exceeds a threshold, then a simple rearrangement heuristic is used to recreate the tree. 2.1.5 Virtual Trunk Dynamic Multicast (VTDM) Algorithm The non-rearrangeable VTDM algorithm proposed in =-=[18]-=- is based on the following principle : \In the dynamic multicast routing problem, if a static multicast algorithm is applied to re-construct the tree for each request, some nodes and links may be freq... |

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Citation Context ...o be 0. We assume the presence of a unicast algorithm for constructing a delay-constrained least cost paths between a pair of nodes. E cient algorithms for this purpose have been proposed in [19] and =-=[23]-=- 5 . Note that the Lagrangian-relaxation heuristic employed in LRA, also addresses the same problem and can therefore be used in conjunction with our algorithm. In the following sections, we will disc... |

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Citation Context ...be 0. We assume the presence of a unicast algorithm for constructing a delay-constrained least cost paths between a pair of nodes. Efficient algorithms for this purpose have been proposed in [19] and =-=[23]-=- 5 . Note that the Lagrangian-relaxation heuristic employed in LRA, also addresses the same problem and can therefore be used in conjunction with our algorithm. In the following sections, we will disc... |

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Citation Context ...shold to be 0. We assume the presence of a unicast algorithm for constructing a delay-constrained least cost paths between a pair of nodes. Efficient algorithms for this purpose have been proposed in =-=[19]-=- and [23] 5 . Note that the Lagrangian-relaxation heuristic employed in LRA, also addresses the same problem and can therefore be used in conjunction with our algorithm. In the following sections, we ... |

2 | Ram Murthy, "Algorithms for delay-constrained low-cost multicast tree construction - Sriram, Manimaran, et al. - 1998 |

2 |
Ram Murthy, “Preferred-link based delay-constrained least cost routing in wide area networks
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Citation Context ...reshold to be 0. We assume the presence of a unicast algorithm for constructing a delay-constrained least cost paths between a pair of nodes. E cient algorithms for this purpose have been proposed in =-=[19]-=- and [23] 5 . Note that the Lagrangian-relaxation heuristic employed in LRA, also addresses the same problem and can therefore be used in conjunction with our algorithm. In the following sections, we ... |

1 |
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Citation Context ...e tree exceeds a threshold, then a simple rearrangement heuristic is used to recreate the tree. 2.1.5 Virtual Trunk Dynamic Multicast (VTDM) Algorithm The non-rearrangeable VTDM algorithm proposed in =-=[18] is b-=-ased on the following principle : "In the dynamic multicast routing problem, if a static multicast algorithm is applied to re-construct the tree for each request, some nodes and links may be freq... |

1 | Ram Murthy, "A rearrangeable algorithm for the construction of delay-constrained dynamic multicast trees - Sriram, Manimaran, et al. - 1999 |