## Experimental Evaluation of an on-line Scribble Recognizer (2001)

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Venue: | Pattern Recognition Letters |

Citations: | 28 - 17 self |

### BibTeX

@ARTICLE{Fonseca01experimentalevaluation,

author = {Manuel J. Fonseca and Joaquim A. Jorge and Rovisco Pais},

title = {Experimental Evaluation of an on-line Scribble Recognizer},

journal = {Pattern Recognition Letters},

year = {2001},

volume = {22},

pages = {1311--1319}

}

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### Abstract

We present a fast, simple and compact approach to recognize scribbles (multi-stroke geometric shapes) drawn with a stylus on a digitizing tablet. Regardless of size, rotation and number of strokes, our method identifies the most common shapes used in drawings, allowing for dashed, continuous or overlapping strokes. Our method combines temporal adjacency, Fuzzy Logic and geometric features to classify scribbles with measured recognition rates over 97%. Key words: On-line Shape Recognition, Tools and Techniques, Fuzzy Logic, Multi-stroke Shapes, Experimental Evaluation 1

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Citation Context ...developed in the area of non-interactive graphics recognition for the introduction of data and diagrams in vectorial CAD systems. Zhao (1993) describes an interactive editor based on the StateCharts (=-=Harel, 1987-=-) formalism. Although the editor uses a mouse and direct manipulation, many of the ideas described by Zhao express an approach based on diagram recognition guided by syntax. Gross (1996) describes a s... |

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Citation Context ...mance, we use a set of filters either to identify shapes or to remove unwanted shapes using distinctive criteria. Third, to overcome uncertainty and imprecision in shape sketches, we use fuzzy logic (=-=Bezdek and Pal, 1992-=-) to associate degrees of certainty to recognized shapes, thereby handling ambiguities naturally. This algorithm recognizes elementary geometric shapes, such as Triangles, Rectangles, Diamonds, Circle... |

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(Show Context)
Citation Context ...nsiderably smaller than Graffiti’s, thus requiring a much smaller number of features. Our work is based on a first approach to recognize schematic drawings developed at the University of Washington =-=(Apte et al., 1993-=-), which recognized a small number of non rotated shapes and did not distinguish open/closed, dashed or bold shapes. Tappert et al. (1990), provide an excellent survey of the work developed in the are... |

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(Show Context)
Citation Context ...e version of this recognizer to allow us to easily add new shape classes to the core set presented in this paper. One idea is to automatically derive fuzzy sets from training data along the lines of (=-=Nauck and Kruse, 1997-=-)sand performing principle component analysis to identify the features relevant to new shape classes. The high recognition rates and fast response characteristic of this recognizer make it very usable... |

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Citation Context ...ecial polygons. The first two are the largest area triangle (lt) and quadrilateral (lq) inscribed in the convex hull (Boyce and Dobkin, 1985). The third is the smallest area enclosing rectangle (er) (=-=Freeman and Shapira, 1975-=-) (see Fig. 2). Finally we compute the area and perimeter for each special polygon, to estimate features and degrees of membership for each shape class. To select features that best identify a given s... |

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Citation Context ...elated Work The idea of calligraphic interfaces is not new, even if we discount that sketches and planar diagrams as a way of communication precede the invention of writing by more than 30 centuries (=-=Harley and Woodward, 1987-=-). Sutherland (1963) presented Sketchpad, the first interactive system that used one light pen to draw diagrams directly over a screen surface. The main limitation of this system resided in the recogn... |

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Citation Context ...s the identification of a larger number of geometric shapes robustly, making it a complementary approach to Rubine’s work. Other authors have proposed more complex methods, involving neural networks=-= (Ulgen et al., 1995-=-), to identify a small number of geometric shapes (rectangles, squares, circles, ellipses and triangles). These shapes are recognized independently of size and rotation, but they can not be drawn usin... |

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Citation Context ...o specific CAD applications. Things changed with the appearance of the first pen computers in 1991, even though pens were used mainly to input text through handwriting recognition. The Newton system (=-=Kounalakis and Menuez, 1993-=-), one of the first handheld pen based computers, incorporates handwriting, shape and gesture recognizers. While the shape recognizer only handles uni-stroke, axis-aligned shapes, the gesture recogniz... |