## Opportunity-based topology control in wireless sensor networks (2008)

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Venue: | in ICDCS |

Citations: | 96 - 14 self |

### BibTeX

@INPROCEEDINGS{Liu08opportunity-basedtopology,

author = {Yunhuai Liu and Qian Zhang and Lionel Ni},

title = {Opportunity-based topology control in wireless sensor networks},

booktitle = {in ICDCS},

year = {2008}

}

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### Abstract

Topology control is an effective method to improve the energy efficiency of wireless sensor networks (WSNs). Traditional approaches are based on the assumption that a pair of nodes is either “connected ” or “disconnected”. These approaches are called connectivity-based topology control. In real environments however, there are many intermittently connected wireless links called lossy links. Taking a succeeded lossy link as an advantage, we are able to construct more energy-efficient topologies. Towards this end, we propose a novel opportunity-based topology control. We show that opportunity-based topology control is a problem of NPhard. To address this problem in a practical way, we design a fully distributed algorithm called CONREAP based on reliability theory. We prove that CONREAP has a guaranteed performance. The worst running time is O(|E|) where E is the link set of the original topology, and the space requirement for individual nodes is O(d) where d is the node degree. To evaluate the performance of CONREAP, we design and implement a prototype system consisting of 50 Berkeley Mica2 motes. We also conducted comprehensive simulations. Experimental results show that compared with the connectivity-based topology control algorithms, CONREAP can improve the energy efficiency of a network up to 6 times. 1

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Citation Context ...ithms, CONREAP can improve the energy efficiency of a network up to 6 times. 1 Introduction Topology control is an effective method to improve the energy efficiency of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) =-=[15,21]-=-. In traditional methods, the network model is based on the assumption that a pair of nodes is either “connected” or “disconnected” . When all nodes are connected to the network, the network is said t... |

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Citation Context ...y-based topology control algorithm and thus no lossy link advantage is taken. Designers of routing algorithms also noticed the transitional region phenomenon in WSNs. In particular, ExOR [2] and MORE =-=[5]-=- are proposed to explore packet overhearing along lossy links in routing. These opportunistic routing schemes are however, based on the network topology that provided by topology control algorithm. Wi... |

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Citation Context ...a connectivity-based topology control algorithm and thus no lossy link advantage is taken. Designers of routing algorithms also noticed the transitional region phenomenon in WSNs. In particular, ExOR =-=[2]-=- and MORE [5] are proposed to explore packet overhearing along lossy links in routing. These opportunistic routing schemes are however, based on the network topology that provided by topology control ... |

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Citation Context ...y. We therefore call these approaches connectivity-based topology control. Connectivity-based topology control is a well-known NPC problem [10] and many heuristic algorithms have been proposed (e.g., =-=[6, 12, 20]-=-). In real application environments, however, this connectivity-based model is not practical due to the transitional region phenomenon. Beyond the “connected” region, there is a transitional region th... |

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Citation Context ...y. We therefore call these approaches connectivity-based topology control. Connectivity-based topology control is a well-known NPC problem [10] and many heuristic algorithms have been proposed (e.g., =-=[6, 12, 20]-=-). In real application environments, however, this connectivity-based model is not practical due to the transitional region phenomenon. Beyond the “connected” region, there is a transitional region th... |

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Citation Context ...nodes. As this problem is NPC, a lot of heuristics have been proposed such as MST-based [17, 20] and Cone-Based algorithms (CBTC) [11, 24]. Notice that [11] does not need location information such as =-=[16]-=-. Very interesting, a recent work [13] also noticed the impact of lossy links to the topology control. The authors studied the network reachability (but a different term) using the probabilistic model... |

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Citation Context ... a topology of minimized energy cost and the full connectivity. We therefore call these approaches connectivity-based topology control. Connectivity-based topology control is a well-known NPC problem =-=[10]-=- and many heuristic algorithms have been proposed (e.g., [6, 12, 20]). In real application environments, however, this connectivity-based model is not practical due to the transitional region phenomen... |

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Citation Context ...e, which can be obtained by sending periodic “Hello” messages, or by measuring the Link Quality Index (LQI). For the latter solution, many recent empirical studies have shown promising results (e.g., =-=[18, 22]-=-). We further assume that the link reachability is fixed. This assumption is reasonable as many empirical studies have shown that link reachability is pretty stable in a stationary environment. In rea... |

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Citation Context ...y. We therefore call these approaches connectivity-based topology control. Connectivity-based topology control is a well-known NPC problem [10] and many heuristic algorithms have been proposed (e.g., =-=[6, 12, 20]-=-). In real application environments, however, this connectivity-based model is not practical due to the transitional region phenomenon. Beyond the “connected” region, there is a transitional region th... |

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Citation Context ...ithms, CONREAP can improve the energy efficiency of a network up to 6 times. 1 Introduction Topology control is an effective method to improve the energy efficiency of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) =-=[15,21]-=-. In traditional methods, the network model is based on the assumption that a pair of nodes is either “connected” or “disconnected” . When all nodes are connected to the network, the network is said t... |

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Citation Context ...us energy-saving schemes have been adopted. One such scheme is by reducing the transmission power of individual nodes. As this problem is NPC, a lot of heuristics have been proposed such as MST-based =-=[17, 20]-=- and Cone-Based algorithms (CBTC) [11, 24]. Notice that [11] does not need location information such as [16]. Very interesting, a recent work [13] also noticed the impact of lossy links to the topolog... |

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Citation Context ...only simple combinations of series and parallel topologies, called series-parallel networks, can be computed in polynomial time. More details of series-parallel networks can be found in the reference =-=[25]-=-. The first approximation algorithm is to deal with the challenge of the computation of the node reachability. We compute an approximation of the node reachability instead of the accurate one. We uses... |

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Citation Context ...apply following evaluation metrics: • The network reachability λ(G); • The energy cost ε(G); • The reachability-energy ratio η(G). We compared CONREAP with a recent Cone-Based Topology Control (CBTC) =-=[11]-=- algorithm which represents the connectivity-based topology control algorithm. The derived topology by CBTC is denoted as GCBT C. And the topology of CONREAP is GR. 5.1 Prototype system results Fig. 5... |

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Citation Context ...f heuristics have been proposed such as MST-based [17, 20] and Cone-Based algorithms (CBTC) [11, 24]. Notice that [11] does not need location information such as [16]. Very interesting, a recent work =-=[13]-=- also noticed the impact of lossy links to the topology control. The authors studied the network reachability (but a different term) using the probabilistic model instead of the traditional determinis... |

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Citation Context ...networks. On one hand, receiving a packet has a similar power level as transmitting it [19]. On the other hand, the consumptions of different transmission power levels are not significantly different =-=[7, 8]-=-. The electronic current of the minimal power is about half of the maximum power. To simplify the analysis, we assume that for any sensor node, each transmitting or receiving consumes one unit of ener... |

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Citation Context ...networks. On one hand, receiving a packet has a similar power level as transmitting it [19]. On the other hand, the consumptions of different transmission power levels are not significantly different =-=[7, 8]-=-. The electronic current of the minimal power is about half of the maximum power. To simplify the analysis, we assume that for any sensor node, each transmitting or receiving consumes one unit of ener... |