## SPACE

### BibTeX

@MISC{Sun_space,

author = {Yi Sun and Under Direction and Dr. Xiaolin Hu and Yi Sun},

title = {SPACE},

year = {}

}

### OpenURL

### Abstract

Cellular space modeling is becoming an increasingly important modeling paradigm for modeling complex systems with spatial-temporal behaviors. The growing demand for cellular space models has directed researchers to use different modeling formalisms, among which Discrete Event System Specification (DEVS) is widely used due to its formal modeling and simulation framework. The increasing complexity of systems to be modeled asks for cellular space models with large number of cells for modeling the systems ’ spatial-temporal behavior. Improving simulation performance becomes crucial for simulating large scale cellular space models. In this dissertation, we proposed a framework for improving simulation performance for large scale DEVS-based cellular space models. The framework has a layered structure, which includes modeling, simulation, and network layers corresponding to the DEVS-based modeling and simulation architecture. Based on this framework, we developed methods at each layer to overcome performance issues for simulating large scale cellular space models. Specifically, toincrease the runtime and memory efficiency for simulating large number of cells, we applied Dynamic Structure DEVS (DSDEVS) to cellular space modeling and carried out comprehensive

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Citation Context ...s are experimented on the forest fire spread model, the mechanisms presented here are extended for generic DEVS models. 1.1 Motivation and General Scope The DEVS (Discrete Event System Specification) =-=[1]-=- formalism is derived from generic dynamic systems theory and has been applied to both continuous and discrete phenomena. It provides a formal modeling and simulation (M&S) framework with well-defined... |

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Citation Context ...uced in [67, 68] to provide a sound framework that exploit the parallelism of the hierarchical DEVS models. Based on this parallelism, it was possible to12 introduce Cellular DEVS [71] and Cell-DEVS =-=[69, 70]-=- that integrate the theories and algorithms of CA in DEVS. 2.2 DEVS Formalism Discrete Event System Specification (DEVS) [1] supports object orientation over modeling environments. Its theory provides... |

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Citation Context ...s, compositions and behavior patterns to adapt to their environments, or those selforganizing, self-reconfiguring engineered systems, where the structures of the systems adapt to changed requirements =-=[10]-=-. Many applications have been developed using the concept of DS modeling, including adaptive computer architecture [11], fire spreading simulation [12, 13], and dynamic team formation of robots [14], ... |

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Citation Context ...nd distributed simulation is another major approach for improving simulation performance of DEVS models. Various DEVS-based distributed simulation environments have been developed, such as DEVS/CORBA =-=[21]-=-, DEVS/HLA [22], and DEVS/RMI [23], and DEVS/SOA [24]. These environment supports distributed simulation however are not designed for high performance simulation. For example, none of them implemented... |

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Citation Context ...or improving simulation performance of DEVS models. Various DEVS-based distributed simulation environments have been developed, such as DEVS/CORBA [21], DEVS/HLA [22], and DEVS/RMI [23], and DEVS/SOA =-=[24]-=-. These environment supports distributed simulation however are not designed for high performance simulation. For example, none of them implemented optimistic simulation algorithms. The work [25] pres... |

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31 | Variable Structure in DEVS Component-Based Modeling and Simulation
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Citation Context ...s [10]. Many applications have been developed using the concept of DS modeling, including adaptive computer architecture [11], fire spreading simulation [12, 13], and dynamic team formation of robots =-=[14]-=-, to name a few. The modeling power of DEVS/DSDEVS has been well studied. Especially for DSDEVS, it shows the modeling advantages for large scale cellular space models. However, existing work generall... |

28 |
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Citation Context ...tant use of CA is its ability to implement complex models efficiently. A. CA Games Cellular automata have been used to model different games, the most famous one proposed by Conway and his colleagues =-=[85]-=-. They have illustrated how extremely simple CA rules can be used to characterize highly complex system behavior such as the game of life. The game was originally proposed by Conway and made popular t... |

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Citation Context ...simulation is another major approach for improving simulation performance of DEVS models. Various DEVS-based distributed simulation environments have been developed, such as DEVS/CORBA [21], DEVS/HLA =-=[22]-=-, and DEVS/RMI [23], and DEVS/SOA [24]. These environment supports distributed simulation however are not designed for high performance simulation. For example, none of them implemented optimistic sim... |

22 |
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Citation Context ... discrete event simulation, simulation engine enhancements were tackled by either flattening the coordinator hierarchy [72], implementing faster scheduling algorithms that deal with active cells only =-=[80, 18]-=-, and/or eliminating unnecessary coordinator3 objects [80]. The network enhancements were dealt with by advanced parallel and distributed communication algorithms or schemas. In this dissertation, a ... |

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Citation Context ... discrete event simulation, simulation engine enhancements were tackled by either flattening the coordinator hierarchy [72], implementing faster scheduling algorithms that deal with active cells only =-=[80, 18]-=-, and/or eliminating unnecessary coordinator3 objects [80]. The network enhancements were dealt with by advanced parallel and distributed communication algorithms or schemas. In this dissertation, a ... |

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Citation Context ...lation tool that can be used in real-time or as-fast-ascan tactical decision making to aid in forest fire control and suppression. Toward that objective, we have developed a cellular based DEVS model =-=[44]-=- of forest fire spread that includes response to control measures. Since all proposed approaches in this dissertation use forest fire spread model [44] for experimental results and analysis, the compl... |

19 |
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Citation Context ...uced in [67, 68] to provide a sound framework that exploit the parallelism of the hierarchical DEVS models. Based on this parallelism, it was possible to12 introduce Cellular DEVS [71] and Cell-DEVS =-=[69, 70]-=- that integrate the theories and algorithms of CA in DEVS. 2.2 DEVS Formalism Discrete Event System Specification (DEVS) [1] supports object orientation over modeling environments. Its theory provides... |

18 |
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Citation Context ... model the Von Neumann (self-reproducing) machines as well as the parallel processing architecture [59]. Overall, the domain of application of CA includes fluid and mass flow [47-49], natural hazards =-=[50]-=-, many other sorts of pattern recognition [51, 52], image processing [53], ecosystems [54], and traffic modeling [55, 56]. In addition, it has been used as10 solutions for common computational needs ... |

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Citation Context ... the maximum fire spread and direction are known, we decompose the fire spread in a cell in the major spread directions using a model that defines fire shape as an ellipse and is proposed by [98] and =-=[78]-=-. The same idea is implemented in [64]. Given the computed rate of spread in each of the eight directions for a given cell, the time it takes for the fire to spread from the center of the cell to the ... |

16 | Cellular automaton approach to pedestrian dynamics — Applications
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Citation Context ... and economists are trying to replace the partial differential equations by cellular automata as an analytical tool. C. Particle Simulation Anther important use of CA is simulation of pedestrians. In =-=[91]-=- Burstedde et al. describe the simulation of pedestrians using cellular automata. Their model is non-deterministic, simulated pedestrians move with a certain probability to another cell. Their model c... |

15 |
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Citation Context ..., 1) Cell (1, 1) Cell (2, 1) Y b Cell (0, 0) Cell (1, 0) Cell (2, 0) Coupling Atomic Model (M) Figure 2.1 Cellular Space Models in DEVS 2.4 Related Work The DEVS (Discrete Event System Specification) =-=[2]-=- formalism is derived from generic dynamic systems theory and has been applied to both continuous and discrete phenomena. It provides a formal modeling and simulation (M&S) framework with well-defined... |

15 |
Implementation of distributed high-performance DEVS simulation framework in the grid computing environment
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Citation Context ...ation tool for designing and evaluating Grid middle-ware, applications and network services for the computational Grids, and Globus [30] that aims to promote and standardize Grid protocols. DEVS/Grid =-=[31]-=- is a distributed M&S framework that supports DEVS M&S activities over Grid computing infrastructure. In addition to the core simulation facilities based on the DEVS M&S framework, DEVS/Grid provides ... |

14 |
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Citation Context ...an the sequential approach. Cellular space modeling is an important modeling paradigm and is commonly used to model complex dynamical systems with spatial-temporal behaviors (see discussions in e.g., =-=[2, 5]-=-). It supports simulations of many different systems, such as urban environment simulation, disease spreading simulation, and ecological system simulation. This dissertation considers the specific app... |

14 |
Modeling Spatial Dynamic Ecological Processes with DEVS-Scheme and Geographical Information Systems
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Citation Context ...re allowed to be dynamic. The model considers non-uniform fire spread parameters in order to address the issue of spatial (temporal) variability of the variables. It follows along the line of work of =-=[77]-=- that introduced36 and illustrated the conceptual basis for a discrete-event hierarchical modular fire spread model, and covers a variety of issues in forest fire simulation and modeling in general. ... |

14 |
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Citation Context ... the game of life, there are other games which have been modeled through CA. Notable among these are the games which provide insights into the synchronization problems - for example, the firing squad =-=[88]-=-, firing mob [89], and queen bee [90]. B. Modeling Nature and Society Modeling different physical systems is the most widely explored application of cellular automata. The time evolutions of physical ... |

13 | Dynamic structure cellular automata in a fire spreading application. Chosen as one of the best papers of the conference
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(Show Context)
Citation Context ...In [18], a new DEVS simulation engine was developed which employs a tree data structure to exploit the spatial heterogeneity of cellular space models for17 improving simulation performance. The work =-=[13]-=- defined a method to predict whether a cell will possibly change state or will be left unchanged, thus helping a simulation to keep track of the actives cells as a simulation proceeds. Efficient imple... |

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12 |
Forest fire spread and suppression
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Citation Context ...ation of forest fire spread simulation, where the forest area is modeled as a cellular space and each cell represents a sub-area of the forest. The fire spread model is based on the work described in =-=[6]-=- but with a new implementation using dynamic structure modeling. The simulation environment used in this work is the DEVSJAVA3.0 environment [7]. It is worthy to point out that many different implemen... |

12 | ATLAS: A language to specify traffic models using Cell-DEVS
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Citation Context ... domain of application of CA includes fluid and mass flow [47-49], natural hazards [50], many other sorts of pattern recognition [51, 52], image processing [53], ecosystems [54], and traffic modeling =-=[55, 56]-=-. In addition, it has been used as10 solutions for common computational needs like networking [57], solving differential equations [58], and distributed computing [59-62]. CA as a simulation model ap... |

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11 |
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Citation Context ...eered systems, where the structures of the systems adapt to changed requirements [10]. Many applications have been developed using the concept of DS modeling, including adaptive computer architecture =-=[11]-=-, fire spreading simulation [12, 13], and dynamic team formation of robots [14], to name a few. The modeling power of DEVS/DSDEVS has been well studied. Especially for DSDEVS, it shows the modeling ad... |

11 |
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Citation Context ...ts of pattern recognition [51, 52], image processing [53], ecosystems [54], and traffic modeling [55, 56]. In addition, it has been used as10 solutions for common computational needs like networking =-=[57]-=-, solving differential equations [58], and distributed computing [59-62]. CA as a simulation model applied in different application fields has become more and more attrctive and important. These appli... |

11 |
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(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ts the activity with the31 DEVS layered architecture to outline the relationship between simulation performance and activity tracking. For more details of activity concept, the reader is referred to =-=[92]-=-. We say that something is active when there is a change in a particular parameter. The definition of the parameter may depend upon the context in which we want to define the activity. Activity as it ... |

10 |
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Citation Context ...han two lists that are disjoint with each other. The implementation of linear list is simple but the time complexity of common operations including inserting, deletion, finding takes O(n). Lazy queue =-=[36]-=- is a multi-list data structure. The fundamental idea is to divide the events into several parts and keep only a small portion of the near future events sorted. The far future events are partially sor... |