## Toward the Practical Use of Network Tomography for Internet Topology Discovery

Citations: | 4 - 0 self |

### BibTeX

@MISC{Eriksson_towardthe,

author = {Brian Eriksson and Gautam Dasarathy and Paul Barford and Robert Nowak},

title = {Toward the Practical Use of Network Tomography for Internet Topology Discovery},

year = {}

}

### OpenURL

### Abstract

Abstract—Accurate and timely identification of the routerlevel topology of the Internet is one of the major unresolved problems in Internet research. Topology recovery via tomographic inference is potentially an attractive complement to standard methods that use TTL-limited probes. In this paper, we describe new techniques that aim toward the practical use of tomographic inference for accurate router-level topology measurement. Specifically, prior tomographic techniques have required an infeasible number of probes for accurate, large scale topology recovery. We introduce a Depth-First Search (DFS) Ordering algorithm that clusters end host probe targets based on shared infrastructure, and enables the logical tree topology of the network to be recovered accurately and efficiently. We evaluate the capabilities of our DFS Ordering topology recovery algorithm in simulation and find that our method uses 94 % fewer probes than exhaustive methods and 50 % fewer than the current state-of-the-art. We also present results from a case study in the live Internet where we show that DFS Ordering can recover the logical router-level topology more accurately and with fewer probes than prior techniques. I.

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Citation Context ...anagement, operations and security. A large number of prior studies have focused on efficient Internet router-level topology discovery using active probebased, traceroute-like measurements e.g., [1], =-=[2]-=-. However, when using TTL-limited, traceroute-like measurements for reconstructing topologies, one is faced with the serious challenges of resolving anonymous routers [3] and router aliases [4]. More ... |

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Citation Context ...ent of open, multicast-enabled nodes renders these techniques impractical for a wide-scale topology study of the Internet. More recent work has focused on network tomography using unicast probes [9], =-=[10]-=-, however these techniques are also impractical due to the quadratic number of probes (O ( N 2) ) needed to resolve the topology. Many unicast tomography techniques also require significant, coordinat... |

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Citation Context ...L-limited, traceroute-like measurements for reconstructing topologies, one is faced with the serious challenges of resolving anonymous routers [3] and router aliases [4]. More recent research in [5], =-=[6]-=- has shown how a combination of traceroute and Record Route probes can improve the accuracy of topology estimation. However, Record Route probes are also limited in that only a small percentage of Int... |

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Citation Context ... DFS Ordering will use at most 56.25% of the pairs probes needed by the Sequential Topology algorithm. B. Datasets 1) Synthetic Dataset: In this paper, the synthetic topologies are generated by Orbis =-=[17]-=-. Orbis is one of the latest and most realistic network topology generators. It creates graphs that have properties that are consistent with many of those observed in the Internet. The Orbis-generated... |

29 |
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Citation Context ... any of the non-unique ordinal lists found from a depth-first search on the end hosts (leaf nodes) of a tree structure can be defined as a DFS ordering. This can also be considered a topological sort =-=[12]-=- on only the end hosts of a logical topology. The idea of topological sort has been explored previously in sensor network literature in [13], where a topological sort of the nodes in a sensor network ... |

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Citation Context ...ork management, operations and security. A large number of prior studies have focused on efficient Internet router-level topology discovery using active probebased, traceroute-like measurements e.g., =-=[1]-=-, [2]. However, when using TTL-limited, traceroute-like measurements for reconstructing topologies, one is faced with the serious challenges of resolving anonymous routers [3] and router aliases [4]. ... |

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Citation Context ..., [1], [2]. However, when using TTL-limited, traceroute-like measurements for reconstructing topologies, one is faced with the serious challenges of resolving anonymous routers [3] and router aliases =-=[4]-=-. More recent research in [5], [6] has shown how a combination of traceroute and Record Route probes can improve the accuracy of topology estimation. However, Record Route probes are also limited in t... |

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Citation Context ...omographic inference of router-level topology using end-to-end measurements of packet delay or loss. Initial work on network tomography methodologies focused on the use of multicast measurements [7], =-=[8]-=-. While multicast inference is attractive due to total number of probes necessary (probing complexity) is O (N) (where N is the number of end hosts in the topology), the extremely limited deployment o... |

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Citation Context ...o resolve the topology. Many unicast tomography techniques also require significant, coordinated measurement infrastructure. The tomographic technique we will focus on for this paper is Network Radar =-=[11]-=-. Network Radar uses round trip time (RTT) measurements as the basis for topology inference and was developed as an attempt to obviate the need for significant coordinated measurement infrastructure. ... |

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Citation Context ...both synthetic and real world topologies II. RELATED WORK The initial work most directly related to the research in this paper is the hierarchical clustering methodologies explored in [7], [8], [15], =-=[16]-=-. This method requires obtaining the entire covariance matrix (e.g., O ( N 2) measurements given N number of end hosts in the topology). The hierarchical clustering methodology will be considered the ... |

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(Show Context)
Citation Context ... is tomographic inference of router-level topology using end-to-end measurements of packet delay or loss. Initial work on network tomography methodologies focused on the use of multicast measurements =-=[7]-=-, [8]. While multicast inference is attractive due to total number of probes necessary (probing complexity) is O (N) (where N is the number of end hosts in the topology), the extremely limited deploym... |

9 | Network loss tomography using striped unicast probes
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(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ployment of open, multicast-enabled nodes renders these techniques impractical for a wide-scale topology study of the Internet. More recent work has focused on network tomography using unicast probes =-=[9]-=-, [10], however these techniques are also impractical due to the quadratic number of probes (O ( N 2) ) needed to resolve the topology. Many unicast tomography techniques also require significant, coo... |

6 | Efficient and Dynamic Routing Topology Inference from End-to-End Measurements
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(Show Context)
Citation Context ...variance matrix structure the number of delay-based probes used to resolve the logical topology of a balanced ℓ-ary tree can be reduced from the current state-ofthe-art tomography probing methodology =-=[14]-=- by over a factor of 2 using our new DFS Ordering-based methodology. To the best of our knowledge, our resulting probing complexity is the lowest probing complexity for any developed unicast tomograph... |

2 | Hierarchical inference of unicast network topologies based on end-to-end measurements
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(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ts on both synthetic and real world topologies II. RELATED WORK The initial work most directly related to the research in this paper is the hierarchical clustering methodologies explored in [7], [8], =-=[15]-=-, [16]. This method requires obtaining the entire covariance matrix (e.g., O ( N 2) measurements given N number of end hosts in the topology). The hierarchical clustering methodology will be considere... |

1 | Efficent Algorithm of Energy Minimization for Heterogeneous Wireless Sensor Network
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(Show Context)
Citation Context ...FS ordering. This can also be considered a topological sort [12] on only the end hosts of a logical topology. The idea of topological sort has been explored previously in sensor network literature in =-=[13]-=-, where a topological sort of the nodes in a sensor network provides efficient routes through the network with lower power consumption. Due to the focus on wire-line networks in this paper, we are not... |