## Reasoning About Actions in a Probabilistic Setting (0)

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Venue: | In Proceedings AAAI-2002 |

Citations: | 25 - 3 self |

### BibTeX

@INPROCEEDINGS{Baral_reasoningabout,

author = {Chitta Baral and Le-chi Tuan},

title = {Reasoning About Actions in a Probabilistic Setting},

booktitle = {In Proceedings AAAI-2002},

year = {},

pages = {507--512},

publisher = {AAAI Press}

}

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### Abstract

In this paper we present a language to reason about actions in a probabilistic setting and compare our work with earlier work by Pearl and (also briefly with) representations used in probabilistic planning. The main feature of our language is its use of static and dynamic causal laws, and use of unknown (or background) variables -- whose values are determined by factors beyond our model -- in incorporating probabilities. We also incorporate probabilities into reasoning with narratives. 1

### Citations

403 | Representing action and change by logic programs
- Gelfond, Lifschitz
- 1993
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...d the semantics our language PAL, which stands for probabilistic action language. The Language PAL The alphabet of the language PAL (denoting probabilistic action language) – based on the language A (=-=Gelfond & Lifschitz 1993-=-) – consists of four non-empty disjoint sets of symbols F, UI, UN and A. They are called the set of fluents, the set of inertial unknown variables, the set of non-inertial unknown variables and the se... |

279 | An Algorithm for Probabilistic Planning - Kushmerick, Hanks, et al. |

186 | Knowledge in action: Logical foundations for describing and implementing dynamical systems - Reiter - 2001 |

165 | A causal theory of ramifications and qualifications
- MCCAIN, TURNER
- 1995
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ffect of an action a in a state s is the set of formulas Ea(s) ={ψ |Dcontains a law a causes ψ if ϕ and ϕ holds in s}. Given a domain description D containing a set of static causal laws R, wefollow (=-=McCain & Turner 1995-=-) to formally define Φ(a, s), the set of states that may be reached by executing a in s as follows. If a is not prohibited (i.e., executable) in s, then Φ(a, s) ={ s ′ | s ′ F,I = CnR((sF,I∩s ′ F,I)∪E... |

159 | The independent choice logic for modelling multiple agents under uncertainty
- Poole
- 1997
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... Weld 1995), 2 stage temporal Bayesian networks (2TBNs) (Boutilier, Dean, & Hanks 1995; Boutilier & Goldszmidt 1996), sequential effect trees (STs) (Littman 1997), and independent choice logic (ICL) (=-=Poole 1997-=-). All these except ICL focus on only planning. Qualitatively, the two drawbacks of these representations are: (i) Although compact they do not aim at being elaboration tolerant. I.e., it is Copyright... |

93 | Planning under uncertainty: Structural assumptions and computational leverage - Boutilier, Dean, et al. - 1995 |

87 | Probabilistic propositional planning: Representations and complexity
- Littman
- 1997
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... state-space operators (PSOs) (Kushmerick, Hanks, & Weld 1995), 2 stage temporal Bayesian networks (2TBNs) (Boutilier, Dean, & Hanks 1995; Boutilier & Goldszmidt 1996), sequential effect trees (STs) (=-=Littman 1997-=-), and independent choice logic (ICL) (Poole 1997). All these except ICL focus on only planning. Qualitatively, the two drawbacks of these representations are: (i) Although compact they do not aim at ... |

82 | Elaboration tolerance
- MCCARTHY
- 1998
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... a glimpse of incorporating probabilities into reasoning with narratives. Introduction and Motivation One of the main goals of ‘reasoning about actions’ is to have a compact and elaboration tolerant (=-=McCarthy 1998-=-) representation of the state transition due to actions. Many such representations – (Sandewall 1998) has several survey papers on these – have been developed in the recent literature. But most of the... |

82 | Narratives in the situation calculus
- Miller, Shanahan
- 1994
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ffect on n-states. Extending PAL to reason with narratives We now discuss ways to extend PAL to allow actual observations instead of hypothetical ones. For this we extend PALtoincorporate narratives (=-=Miller & Shanahan 1994-=-), where we have time points as first class citizens and we can observe fluent values and action occurrences at these time points and do tasks such as reason about missing action occurrences, make dia... |

49 | Embracing causality in specifying the indeterminate effects of actions
- Lin
- 1995
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...y Pearl. The non-inertial unknown variables plays a similar role as the role of nature’s action in Reiter’s formulation (Chapter 12 of (Reiter 2001)) and are also similar to Lin’s magic predicate in (=-=Lin 1996-=-). In Reiter’s formulation a stochastic action is composed of a set of deterministic actions, and when an agent executes the stochastic action nature steps in and picks one of the component actions re... |

40 | Reasoning With Cause and Effect
- Pearl
- 1999
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ts at a time point based on observations about later time points, and counterfactual reasoning about fluent values after a hypothetical sequence of actions taking into account observations. Pearl in (=-=Pearl 1999-=-; 2000) discusses the later inadequacy at great length. Besides developing an elaboration tolerant representation, the other main goal of our paper is to show how the other reasoning about action aspe... |

33 | Formulating diagnostic problem solving using an action language with narratives and sensing - Baral, McIlraith, et al. - 2000 |

20 | M.: The Frame Problem and Bayesian Network Action Representations
- Boutilier, Goldszmidt
- 1996
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...e of the representations that are suggested are probabilistic state-space operators (PSOs) (Kushmerick, Hanks, & Weld 1995), 2 stage temporal Bayesian networks (2TBNs) (Boutilier, Dean, & Hanks 1995; =-=Boutilier & Goldszmidt 1996-=-), sequential effect trees (STs) (Littman 1997), and independent choice logic (ICL) (Poole 1997). All these except ICL focus on only planning. Qualitatively, the two drawbacks of these representations... |