## Evaluating steiner tree heuristics and diameter variations for application layer multicast,”AcceptedforpublicationinComputerNetworksonComplexComputerandCommunicationNetworks (2008)

Citations: | 2 - 2 self |

### BibTeX

@MISC{Vik08evaluatingsteiner,

author = {Knut-helge Vik and Carsten Griwodz and Halvorsen Carsten Griwodz},

title = {Evaluating steiner tree heuristics and diameter variations for application layer multicast,”AcceptedforpublicationinComputerNetworksonComplexComputerandCommunicationNetworks},

year = {2008}

}

### OpenURL

### Abstract

Latency reduction in distributed interactive applications has been studied intensively. Such applications may have stringent latency requirements and dynamic user groups. We focus on application-layer multicast with a centralized approach to the group management. The groups are organized in overlay networks that are created using graph algorithms that create a tree structure for the group. A tree has no cycles and uses a small routing table, as opposed to a connected overlay mesh. We investigate a group of spanning tree problems that are referred to as Steiner tree problems, and we have a particular focus on reducing the diameter of a tree, which is the maximum pairwise latency in a tree. In addition, we focus on reducing the time it takes to execute membership changes. In that context, we use coreselection heuristics to find well-placed client nodes, and edge-pruning algorithms to reduce the number of edges in an otherwise fully meshed overlay. Our edge-pruning algorithms strongly connect well-placed client nodes to the remaining group members, to create new and pruned group graphs. Consequently, when a tree algorithm is applied to a pruned group graph, it is manipulated into creating trees with a smaller diameter. We devised new Steiner-tree heuristics that reduced the diameter, and also proposed new edge-pruning algorithms to make the tree construction faster. These heuristics and algorithms were implemented and analyzed experimentally along with several spanning-tree and core-selection heuristics found in the literature. We found that a full-mesh of shortest paths makes it difficult for Steiner-tree heuristics to find better trees than spanning tree algorithms. The network seen from the application layer is in fact a full mesh of shortest paths. In addition, we found that faster Steiner-tree heuristics that do not explicitly optimize the diameter are able to compete with slower heuristics that do optimize it.

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Citation Context ...ic. Furthermore, few, if any, protocols are able to maintain subsets of a larger set of nodes. An approach that looks at the maintenance of subgroups within a larger set of overlay nodes is PartyPeer =-=[39]-=-. This system creates subgroups by forming overlay multicast groups as subtrees of a tree that covers the entire set. However, the approach taken results in poorer performance, because subgroups are a... |

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Citation Context ...roaches are used to accomplish overlay multicast. One is peer-2-peer (P2P) networks that are designed for file and information sharing in highly dynamic networks, for example, BitTorrent and Gnutella =-=[32]-=-. Most P2P applications build overlay networks that ignore the underlying physical topology, which affects the service because the latency can become very high. The second approach focuses on improvin... |