## Jawaharlal Nehru Technological

### BibTeX

@MISC{Msvs_jawaharlalnehru,

author = {Bhadri Raju Msvs and Vishnu Vardhan B and Pratap Reddy L},

title = {Jawaharlal Nehru Technological},

year = {}

}

### OpenURL

### Abstract

Information theoretic approach for decipherment problems is the recent trend in cryptanalysis. The behavioral transformation of message units is addressed upto certain extent in the encryption process. However the amount of confusion and diffusion in terms of statistical distribution parameters between message and cipher text is a point of interest for cryptanalyst. In the present work we addressed this issue with the help of enhanced probability distribution function. The basic units of any message text are observed to be heuristic in nature depending on the sample. Averaging function is adopted while evaluating the enhanced probabilities of message units. The retrieved efficiency of cipher text only attack on samples of English, Hindi Telugu, Kannada is presented in this paper.

### Citations

6083 |
A mathematical theory of communication
- Shannon
- 1948
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...l property, which may loosely be referred as meaning. For a meaningful message, it is possible to shorten it without destroying the meaning. This property is referred as redundancy. Shannon addressed =-=[2]-=- the redundancy of a language as its uncertainty. Every language is associated with certain amount of redundancy. Large amount of redundancy gives a way to cryptanalyst towards simple mechanisms of de... |

341 |
Prediction and Entropy of Printed English
- Shannon
- 1951
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ogramming to search over the key space. This proposed method is reported with a study of decipherment accuracy as a function of n-gram order and cipher length. Shannon proposal of entropy is extended =-=[21]-=- to evaluate the redundancy of a language. Entropy measures the average information produced on each letter of a text in the language where as redundancy measures the amount of constraint imposed on a... |

25 | An extension of the Shannon theory approach to cryptography
- Hellman
- 1977
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...pproaches in cryptology. The survey reported Shannon‟s cipher system, Simmons authentication approach, wire tape channel, secret sharing communication system approaches. Diffie and Hellman introduced =-=[23]-=- another approach to achieve practical security based on computational complexity. Trap door functions and one way functions are explored. Borissov and Lee computed [24] bounds on the theoretical meas... |

15 | The full cost of cryptanalytic attacks
- Wiener
- 2004
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...he key only. Thus an essential factor in the design of a cryptographic system is focused on the length of the key, whose size places an upper bound. Security analysis identifies several attack models =-=[1]-=-, which include Cipher text-only attack, Chosen plain text attack, Known plain text attack and Chosen cipher text attack. The complex properties of natural languages play an important role in the form... |

10 | Attacking decipherment problems optimally with low-order n-gram models
- Ravi, Knight
- 2008
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...cy analysis technique. In the decipherment process of mono alphabetic substitution cipher, monogram frequencies, keyword rules and dictionary are explored one after the other. Knight et al. described =-=[19]-=- a number of natural language decipherment problems that use unsupervised learning. These include letter substitution ciphers, phonetic decipherment, character code conversion and wordbased ciphers wi... |

10 |
Information theory in cryptology
- Yamamoto
- 1991
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...rmation produced on each letter of a text in the language where as redundancy measures the amount of constraint imposed on a text in the language because of its statistical nature letters. H Yamamoto =-=[22]-=- presented a survey on different information theoretic approaches in cryptology. The survey reported Shannon‟s cipher system, Simmons authentication approach, wire tape channel, secret sharing communi... |

6 |
Knight,'Attacking Letter Substitution Ciphers with
- Ravi, Kevin
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...n machine translation. An efficient algorithm that accomplishes a naive application of the Expectation Maximization (EM) algorithm to break a substitution cipher is reported. Ravi and Knight explored =-=[20]-=- low-order letter n-gram model based on integer programming to search over the key space. This proposed method is reported with a study of decipherment accuracy as a function of n-gram order and ciphe... |

3 |
Genetic Algorithm Cryptanalysis of a Fiestel Type
- Albassal, Wahdan
- 2004
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...nalysis of statistical properties of block ciphers is used in the process of cryptanalysis. Applicability of this method to the RC5 cryptanalysis is analysed. Automated attack algorithms are proposed =-=[7]-=- for which human intervention is largely minimized by exploring genetic algorithms. Joe Gester proposed [8] a search algorithm based on likely hood approach. The proposed Genetic algorithm involves an... |

3 |
A Fast method for the Cryptanalysis of Substitution Ciphers
- Jacobsen
- 1995
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ystems that have more characters than English and on cipher lengths that are not solved by low-order language models. Language-model perplexity is related to decipherment accuracy. Jackobsen proposed =-=[16]-=- a method for cryptanalysis of substitution ciphers. In this method the initial guess of the key is refined through a number of iterations. In each step the recovered plain text is used to guess the c... |

2 | 2009. Probabilistic methods for a Japanese syllable cipher
- Ravi, Knight
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...am model of English and stochastic local search over all possible keys of the key space. This method resulted in the median of 94% cipher letters with an exact reverse map. Sujith Ravi et al. studied =-=[14]-=- attacking Japanese syllable substitution cipher, with the help of natural language models. They proposed several improvements over previous probabilistic methods, while achieving improved results. Fr... |

2 | Decrypting English Text Using Enhanced Frequency Analysis
- Lee, Teh, et al.
- 2006
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ryptograms. However an exponential time is required in the worst case. This method fails under the condition that words in the plain text are in the dictionary. A deciphering model is proposed by Lee =-=[18]-=- to automate the cryptanalysis of mono alphabetic substitution ciphers while exploring enhanced frequency analysis technique. In the decipherment process of mono alphabetic substitution cipher, monogr... |

1 |
Cryptanalysis of Block Ciphers: A Survey. UCL Crypto group
- Standaert, Piret, et al.
- 2003
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... blocks of complex and secure ciphers that are most widely used today. Understanding the vulnerability of simple ciphers is important while building more complex ciphers. A large number of techniques =-=[3]-=- are available in the literature to break substitution ciphers, each of them having advantages and disadvantages over one another. While attacking the cipher models, the goal is to derive the secret k... |

1 |
Classical Ciphers and Cryptanalysis
- Carter, Magoc
- 2007
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...es and disadvantages over one another. While attacking the cipher models, the goal is to derive the secret key or cipher text under the influence of known algorithm. Different techniques are explored =-=[4, 5]-=- in the literature to find the key, there by decrypting the entire cipher text. Several possible methods to break a substitution cipher include exhaustive search, simulated annealing, frequency analys... |

1 |
Goester.: Solving Substitution Ciphers with Genetics Algorithm. A Technical Report submitted to university of Rochester, pp
- Joe
- 2003
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...f this method to the RC5 cryptanalysis is analysed. Automated attack algorithms are proposed [7] for which human intervention is largely minimized by exploring genetic algorithms. Joe Gester proposed =-=[8]-=- a search algorithm based on likely hood approach. The proposed Genetic algorithm involves an iterative process of finding the fitness of the individuals in the population. If this method is not satis... |

1 |
Designing against a class of algebraic attacks on symmetric block ciphers
- Adams
- 2006
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... If this method is not satisfactory, then attempt is made to search a smaller problem space by restricting the key space to those which are generated by a keyword. Algebraic cryptanalysis is a method =-=[9, 10]-=- in which cryptanalysis begins by constructing a system of polynomial equations in terms of plaintext bits, cipher text bits and key bits. The factors that play important role are the number of variab... |

1 |
Algebraic Cryptanalysis of Simplified AES
- Simmons
- 2009
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... If this method is not satisfactory, then attempt is made to search a smaller problem space by restricting the key space to those which are generated by a keyword. Algebraic cryptanalysis is a method =-=[9, 10]-=- in which cryptanalysis begins by constructing a system of polynomial equations in terms of plaintext bits, cipher text bits and key bits. The factors that play important role are the number of variab... |

1 |
Selçuk.: On Probability of Success in Linear and Differential Cryptanalysis
- Aydın
- 2008
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...h cipher text pairs and their differential properties are explored. An alternative approach while exploring non-linearity in block ciphers is termed as linear cryptanalysis. Both methods are explored =-=[11]-=- extensively forming the foundation for cryptanalysis. Differential cryptanalysis is originally developed to attack Fast data Encipherment Algorithm (FEAL), and later proved its worth when applied to ... |

1 |
Corona Chavez.: De-encryption of a text in spanish using probability and statistics
- Rinza, Alejandra, et al.
- 2008
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... of cryptanalysis are reported in literature using language characteristics while understanding the strength of cipher system. One such approach deals with frequency statistics. A method is presented =-=[12]-=- for de-ciphering texts in Spanish using the probability of letters in the language. This method is proposed on a mono alphabetic cipher by assigning weights to different letter alphabets of Spanish l... |

1 |
Hasinoff.: Solving Substitution Ciphers. A
- Samuel
- 2003
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...o different letter alphabets of Spanish language and achieved positive results. However 100% success is far reaching due to inconsistencies in the frequency distribution. Samuel W. Hasinoff presented =-=[13]-=- a system for the automatic solution of short substitution ciphers. The proposed system explored n-gram model of English and stochastic local search over all possible keys of the key space. This metho... |

1 |
Anish Nair, Nishit Rathod.: Unsupervised Analysis for Decipherment Problems
- Knight
- 2006
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...babilistic methods, while achieving improved results. From a natural language perspective, cryptanalysis task can be viewed as unsupervised tagging problem. Language Modeling (LM) techniques are used =-=[15]-=- to rank proposed decipherment. This work mainly attacks on difficult cipher systems that have more characters than English and on cipher lengths that are not solved by low-order language models. Lang... |

1 | Bounds on Key Appearance Equivocation for Substitution Ciphers
- Borissov, Lee
- 2007
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... Diffie and Hellman introduced [23] another approach to achieve practical security based on computational complexity. Trap door functions and one way functions are explored. Borissov and Lee computed =-=[24]-=- bounds on the theoretical measure for the 35International Journal of Computer Applications (0975 – 8887) Volume 5– No.8, August 2010 strength of a system under known plain text attack. Zhang propose... |

1 |
A Simplified Method for Computing the Key Equivocation for Additive-Like Instantaneous Block Encipherers
- Zhang
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ounds on the theoretical measure for the 35International Journal of Computer Applications (0975 – 8887) Volume 5– No.8, August 2010 strength of a system under known plain text attack. Zhang proposed =-=[25]-=- the key equivocation, which is the conditional entropy of the key given the cipher text and corresponding plain text is considered as a measure of strength of the system. 3. INFORMATION THEORETIC APP... |

1 | et al.: A Noval Security Model for Indic Scripts – A Case Study on Telugu - Raju - 2009 |