## Structured Design of Microelectromechanical Systems

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Venue: | in Proceedings of the 1997 Design Automation Conference |

Citations: | 18 - 3 self |

### BibTeX

@INPROCEEDINGS{Mukherjee_structureddesign,

author = {Tamal Mukherjee and Gary K. Fedder},

title = {Structured Design of Microelectromechanical Systems},

booktitle = {in Proceedings of the 1997 Design Automation Conference},

year = {},

pages = {9--13}

}

### Years of Citing Articles

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### Abstract

In order to efficiently design complex microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) having large numbers of multi-domain components, a hierarchically structured design approach that is compatible with standard IC design is needed. A graphical-based schematic, or structural, view is presented as a geometrically intuitive way to represent MEMS as a set of interconnected lumpedparameter elements. An initial library focuses on suspended-MEMS technology from which inertial sensors and other mechanical mechanisms can be designed. The schematic representation has a simulation interface enabling the designer to simulate the design at the component level. Synthesis of MEMS cells for common topologies provides the system designer with rapid, optimized component layout and associated macro-models. A synthesis module is developed for the popular folded-flexure micromechanical resonator topology. The algorithm minimizes a combination of total layout area and voltage applied to the electromechanical actuators. Synthesis results clearly show the design limits of behavioral parameters such as resonant frequency for a fixed process technology.

### Citations

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Citation Context ...d, and we are considering the use simu(c) (d) (e) Fig. 7. Layout of five resonators synthesized from specifications. (a) f r = 3 kHz, (b) 10 kHz, (c) 30 kHz, (d) 100 kHz, (e) 300 kHz. lated annealing =-=[24]-=- as the optimization engine due to its potential for global optimization in the face of many local minima. The use of a deterministic optimization approach is essential in this early part of this rese... |

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Citation Context ...ation, analogous to the role that electronic technology CAD plays with device and interconnect modeling. Behavioral simulation can be accomplished using many different commercial tools, such as SPICE =-=[7]-=-[8], MATLAB [9][10], Saber [11], and Spectre [12]. Some groups [13][14] have started to construct geometric parameterized cell libraries of MEMS components to support behavioral simulation. Unfortunat... |

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Citation Context ...volves modelling the design problem as a formal numerical synthesis problem, and then solving it with powerful optimization techniques. This philosophy has been successful in analog circuit synthesis =-=[20]-=-[21][22], in which synthesizers have generated layout of op-amps, switchedcapacitor filters, and other common analog circuits. Although universal building blocks have not been discovered for MEMS, com... |

29 |
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(Show Context)
Citation Context ...o the role that electronic technology CAD plays with device and interconnect modeling. Behavioral simulation can be accomplished using many different commercial tools, such as SPICE [7][8], MATLAB [9]=-=[10]-=-, Saber [11], and Spectre [12]. Some groups [13][14] have started to construct geometric parameterized cell libraries of MEMS components to support behavioral simulation. Unfortunately, the constructi... |

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Citation Context ...sus displacement of the spring [15]. The comb-drive model is a physics-based model derived from a parallel-plate capacitor plus a fringe field term determined by electrostatic finite element analysis =-=[26]-=-. The resonant frequencies of the microresonator are then derived from these parameters using Rayleigh’s Energy method [27]. The parasitic effects on the microresonator are determined from air-damping... |

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Citation Context ...es modelling the design problem as a formal numerical synthesis problem, and then solving it with powerful optimization techniques. This philosophy has been successful in analog circuit synthesis [20]=-=[21]-=-[22], in which synthesizers have generated layout of op-amps, switchedcapacitor filters, and other common analog circuits. Although universal building blocks have not been discovered for MEMS, compone... |

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Citation Context ...ilities. THE MICRORESONATOR The microresonator shown in Fig. 2 will be used to describe our approach to MEMS component design. The specific resonator topology was first described and analyzed by Tang =-=[15]-=-. It is used in resonator oscillators, in filters, and as a mechanical characterization test structure to measure Young’s modulus of thin films. The central shuttle mass suspended by two folded-beam f... |

8 |
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Citation Context ...omachined suspended MEMS, as exemplified by the recent success of commercial microaccelerometers for automotive airbag deployment [1][2] and digital mirror displays for high-fidelity video projection =-=[3]-=-. The availability of accumulated design expertise, stable fabrication services, and electromechanical CAD modeling tools has made the suspended-MEMS technology a suitable candidate for initial develo... |

6 |
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Citation Context ...ion involves self-consistent mechanical finite-element analysis coupled with electrostatic boundary element analysis. Tools that cater to the MEMS community are available from several companies [4][5]=-=[6]-=-. Unfortunately, the simulation time of these tools is prohibitively slow for tight iterative design. Faster algorithms and machines will alleviate this problem, however numerical simulation alone wil... |

6 |
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Citation Context ...nator are then derived from these parameters using Rayleigh’s Energy method [27]. The parasitic effects on the microresonator are determined from air-damping modeled as Couette flow in the spacer gap =-=[28]-=-. The algebraic model for the synthesized resonators of Fig. 7 were verified using ABAQUS [29], a commercial mechanical finite-element tool. Our simulation setup employed the 8-node biquadratic, reduc... |

4 |
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Citation Context ...on, analogous to the role that electronic technology CAD plays with device and interconnect modeling. Behavioral simulation can be accomplished using many different commercial tools, such as SPICE [7]=-=[8]-=-, MATLAB [9][10], Saber [11], and Spectre [12]. Some groups [13][14] have started to construct geometric parameterized cell libraries of MEMS components to support behavioral simulation. Unfortunately... |

4 |
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Citation Context ...hat electronic technology CAD plays with device and interconnect modeling. Behavioral simulation can be accomplished using many different commercial tools, such as SPICE [7][8], MATLAB [9][10], Saber =-=[11]-=-, and Spectre [12]. Some groups [13][14] have started to construct geometric parameterized cell libraries of MEMS components to support behavioral simulation. Unfortunately, the construction of behavi... |

4 |
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Citation Context ...with device and interconnect modeling. Behavioral simulation can be accomplished using many different commercial tools, such as SPICE [7][8], MATLAB [9][10], Saber [11], and Spectre [12]. Some groups =-=[13]-=-[14] have started to construct geometric parameterized cell libraries of MEMS components to support behavioral simulation. Unfortunately, the construction of behavioral models for MEMS components is c... |

4 |
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Citation Context ...gn has focused on behavioral simulation of individual devices (e.g., microresonators) with abstract macromodels [16], or with eigenmode decomposition using single degree-of-freedom (DOF) elements [17]=-=[18]-=-. Systems that incorporate suspended-MEMS technology will have different CAD requirements than individual devices such as a microaccelerometer proof mass. For system-level applications, MEMS behaviora... |

4 |
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Citation Context ...ck has been determined, the information is used to compute the performance of components that are higher up in the hierarchy, eventually leading to the predicted performance for the desired structure =-=[25]-=-. Note that the information flow need not be purely upward in this hierarchy. If two sub-blocks interact, for example in determining an equivalent spring constant, then the analysis equations at the n... |

2 |
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Citation Context ...action, and lack of design hierarchy. Previous work on higher-level MEMS structural design has focused on behavioral simulation of individual devices (e.g., microresonators) with abstract macromodels =-=[16]-=-, or with eigenmode decomposition using single degree-of-freedom (DOF) elements [17][18]. Systems that incorporate suspended-MEMS technology will have different CAD requirements than individual device... |

2 |
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Citation Context ...y, stroke, quality factor, and electromechanical stability. The complete design problem is therefore represented as a constrained non-linear optimization problem, and solved by an offthe-shelf solver =-=[23]-=-. Due to the significant number of local minima in this design problem a gridded-multistart optimization is currently being employed, and we are considering the use simu(c) (d) (e) Fig. 7. Layout of f... |