## Benthic Invertebrate Data Analysis and Interpretation

### BibTeX

@MISC{Invertebrate_benthicinvertebrate,

author = {To Benthic Invertebrate and Roger H. Green},

title = {Benthic Invertebrate Data Analysis and Interpretation},

year = {}

}

### OpenURL

### Abstract

The Aquatic Effects Technology Evaluation (AETE) program was established to review appropriate technologies for assessing the impacts of mine effluents on the aquatic environment. AETE is a cooperative program between the Canadian mining industry, several federal government departments and a number of provincial governments; it is coordinated by the Canada Centre for Mineral and Energy Technology (CANMET). The program was designed to be of direct benefit to the industry, and to government. Through technical and field evaluations, it identified cost-effective technologies to meet environmental monitoring requirements. The program included three main areas: acute and sublethal toxicity testing, biological monitoring in receiving waters, and water and sediment monitoring. The technical evaluations are conducted to document certain tools selected by AETE members, and to provide the rationale for doing a field evaluation of the tools or provide specific guidance on field application of a method. In some cases, the technical evaluations included a go/no go recommendation that AETE takes into consideration before a field evaluation of a given method is conducted. The technical evaluations are published although they do not necessarily reflect the views of the participants in the AETE Program. The technical evaluations should be considered as working documents rather than comprehensive literature reviews. The purpose of the technical evaluations was to document specific

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Citation Context ... models described above can be combined, so that the biological response is predicted by both an ANOVA design and by continuous environmental variables . This is an analysis of covariance, or ANCOVA (=-=Seber 1984-=-; Cox and McCullagh 1982; Cooley and Lohnes 1971, 1962; Cochran 1957). As with ANOVA, ANCOVA can easily be done as an MV analysis. Whether UV or MV, ANCOVA used on observational data in environmental ... |

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Citation Context ...ariation on a spatial (or temporal) scale commensurate with the "impact" contrast. Sometimes there isn't and the best one can do is to use "pseudoreplicate" error (sampling error) for testing impact (=-=Hurlbert 1984-=-). Also there must be a reasonably good estimate of the error variance, which is equivalent in practice to having adequate error degrees of freedom. A rule of thumb is that a minimum of 10 error degre... |

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Citation Context ...parate the groups, and is typically done following a significant MANOVA result as an aid to interpreting it. There are a number of good general and fairly accessible references for MANOVA and CDA14 (=-=Legendre and Legendre 1997-=-; Harris 1985; Green 1979; Pimentel 1978; Cooley and Lohnes 1971, 1962). Seber (1984) is at a higher level. Pielou (1984) explains CDA as an ordination method i.e. without the MANOVA hypothesis-testin... |

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Citation Context ...s additional to CCA Besides Canonical Correlation Analysis (described in most MV statistics textbooks e.g. Seber (1984)), one-step methods include Mantel's test (Mantel 1970) and Procrustes analysis (=-=Gower 1975-=-; Schonemann and Carroll 1970). An ecological application of Mantel's test is in Anderson and Underwood (1997). Methods not mentioned in Green (1993a; 1993b), but which should have been, are Canonical... |

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Citation Context ...ephenson 1987; Yan and Strus 1980) and industrial discharges (Metcalfe-Smith et al. 1996), and marine oil & gas (Olsgard et al. 1997; Peterson et al. 1996; Kennicutt et al. 1996b; Hyland et al. 1994; =-=Clarke 1993-=-; Warwick 1993; Chapman et al. 1991) as well as mining discharges (Austen and4 Somerfield 1997; Somerfield et al. 1994a, 1994b). Workers in marine environments have developed powerful statistical too... |

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Citation Context ...OOMEX papers (e.g. Montagna and Harper 1996). Green (1979) has a section on graphical display of results, with examples. There are books about "tricks" for displaying multivariate data (Everitt 1978; =-=Andrews 1972-=-) but I have never found them to be particularly useful. Finally, one has to be aware of the statistical sophistication, or lack thereof, of the intended audience. For most general audiences it is bes... |

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Citation Context ...t. Fortunately general reference books exist which are good at explaining how to interpret hypothesistesting multivariate analysis results, as provided by computer output (Legendre and Legendre 1997; =-=Manly 1994-=-; Harris 1985; Seber 1984; Green 1979; Pimentel 1978; Cooley and Lohnes 1971, 1962). It is important to keep in mind that parametric hypothesis-testing statistical analyses such as MANOVA/CDA, ANCOVA ... |

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Citation Context ...OVA result as an aid to interpreting it. There are a number of good general and fairly accessible references for MANOVA and CDA14 (Legendre and Legendre 1997; Harris 1985; Green 1979; Pimentel 1978; =-=Cooley and Lohnes 1971-=-, 1962). Seber (1984) is at a higher level. Pielou (1984) explains CDA as an ordination method i.e. without the MANOVA hypothesis-testing step. Personally I don't think that CDA is an ordination metho... |

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Citation Context ... of freedom (df) is adequate for robustness of an ANOVA F-test in the face of moderate violations of assumptions e.g. homogeneity of variance and normality, in a balanced design with random sampling (=-=Harris 1985-=-). Power to detect a real difference, e.g. between impact and control areas, is a function of the magnitude of the difference, the error variance, and the sample size. Study designs which are inadequa... |

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Citation Context ...influential (1997; 1993; 1992; 1981). Other references to this approach are (Green and Montagna 1996; Kennicutt et al. 1996a, 1996b; Hyland et al. 1994; Green 1993b; Hinch and Green 1989; Green 1989; =-=Clarke and Green 1988-=-; Green 1987, 1984). The third and most recent thread has been the development and application of the Sediment Quality Triad (SQT) concept which relates the three components: benthic biological commun... |

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Citation Context ... to CCA Besides Canonical Correlation Analysis (described in most MV statistics textbooks e.g. Seber (1984)), one-step methods include Mantel's test (Mantel 1970) and Procrustes analysis (Gower 1975; =-=Schonemann and Carroll 1970-=-). An ecological application of Mantel's test is in Anderson and Underwood (1997). Methods not mentioned in Green (1993a; 1993b), but which should have been, are Canonical Correspondence Analysis (Jon... |

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Citation Context ... Green et al. 1993; Chapman et al. 1991, 1987). There is a large literature on biomonitoring using organism uptake and body burden of metal contaminants. Molluscs are often used. Some references are (=-=Bryan and Langston 1992-=-; Metcalfe-Smith and Green 1992; Hinch and Green 1989; Hinch and Stephenson 1987; Imlay 1982; Eganhouse and Young 1978; Davies and Pirie 1978; Luoma and Jenne 1977; Phillips 1976; Smith et al. 1975). ... |

26 |
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Citation Context ... some of the GOOMEX papers (e.g. Montagna and Harper 1996). Green (1979) has a section on graphical display of results, with examples. There are books about "tricks" for displaying multivariate data (=-=Everitt 1978-=-; Andrews 1972) but I have never found them to be particularly useful. Finally, one has to be aware of the statistical sophistication, or lack thereof, of the intended audience. For most general audie... |

23 |
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Citation Context ...sponse is predicted by both an ANOVA design and by continuous environmental variables . This is an analysis of covariance, or ANCOVA (Seber 1984; Cox and McCullagh 1982; Cooley and Lohnes 1971, 1962; =-=Cochran 1957-=-). As with ANOVA, ANCOVA can easily be done as an MV analysis. Whether UV or MV, ANCOVA used on observational data in environmental monitoring gets tricky because predictors are supposed to be indepen... |

23 |
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Citation Context ...he PRIMER statistical package (Carr 1996) and discussed in an accompanying manual (Clarke and Warwick 1994a). Three key references, spanning the period 1982-1993, are (Clarke 1993; Bayne et al. 1988; =-=Field et al. 1982-=-). A second thread has been the development and application of sophisticated ANOVA designs (with both univariate and multivariate responses) for marine environmental studies. There is an early book by... |

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Citation Context ...gns, a repeated measures ANOVA can be done with one or with more than one Y variable, given sufficient error df. 3.1.5 The reference sites approach The "reference sites approach" (Bailey et al. 1996; =-=Wright 1995-=-; Reynoldson et al. 1995), which has antecedents in the earlier work of Wright et al. (1984), should be mentioned here. The advocates of this approach agree on the underlying concept (I like it too), ... |

19 |
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Citation Context ...n fact makes sense because there is ample evidence that pollution impact often changes not only the means of the Y (response) variables but also their variances (Green and Montagna 1996; Green 1993b; =-=Underwood 1993-=-; Warwick and Clarke 1993). Evidence of heterogeneity of variance (typically a higher variance among impacted sites than among reference sites) suggests a violation of the homogeneity of variance assu... |

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Citation Context ...bset selection" methods which use the correlation structure to choose one or more of the variables so as to maximize the information contained in all of the variables in the original set (Green 1979; =-=Orloci 1978-=-, 1976, 1973). A similar result is usually obtained by doing a Principal Components Analysis (PCA) on the original set of variables and then using the variable having the strongest relationship with t... |

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Citation Context ...and two-step.20 3.2.2 One-step methods additional to CCA Besides Canonical Correlation Analysis (described in most MV statistics textbooks e.g. Seber (1984)), one-step methods include Mantel's test (=-=Mantel 1970-=-) and Procrustes analysis (Gower 1975; Schonemann and Carroll 1970). An ecological application of Mantel's test is in Anderson and Underwood (1997). Methods not mentioned in Green (1993a; 1993b), but ... |

13 |
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Citation Context ...se because there is ample evidence that pollution impact often changes not only the means of the Y (response) variables but also their variances (Green and Montagna 1996; Green 1993b; Underwood 1993; =-=Warwick and Clarke 1993-=-). Evidence of heterogeneity of variance (typically a higher variance among impacted sites than among reference sites) suggests a violation of the homogeneity of variance assumption for parametric ANO... |

12 |
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Citation Context ...; Yan and Strus 1980) and industrial discharges (Metcalfe-Smith et al. 1996), and marine oil & gas (Olsgard et al. 1997; Peterson et al. 1996; Kennicutt et al. 1996b; Hyland et al. 1994; Clarke 1993; =-=Warwick 1993-=-; Chapman et al. 1991) as well as mining discharges (Austen and4 Somerfield 1997; Somerfield et al. 1994a, 1994b). Workers in marine environments have developed powerful statistical tools which have ... |

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Citation Context ...ed measures ANOVA can be done with one or with more than one Y variable, given sufficient error df. 3.1.5 The reference sites approach The "reference sites approach" (Bailey et al. 1996; Wright 1995; =-=Reynoldson et al. 1995-=-), which has antecedents in the earlier work of Wright et al. (1984), should be mentioned here. The advocates of this approach agree on the underlying concept (I like it too), which is in essence that... |

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9 |
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Citation Context ...lly determined toxicity of the sediments to organisms. Originally proposed by Chapman and Long, there has been much interest in the SQT approach by workers in both marine and freshwater environments (=-=Chapman et al. 1997-=-a, 1997b; Green and Montagna 1996; Chapman 1996; Green et al. 1993; Chapman et al. 1991, 1987). There is a large literature on biomonitoring using organism uptake and body burden of metal contaminants... |

9 |
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Citation Context ...significant MANOVA result as an aid to interpreting it. There are a number of good general and fairly accessible references for MANOVA and CDA14 (Legendre and Legendre 1997; Harris 1985; Green 1979; =-=Pimentel 1978-=-; Cooley and Lohnes 1971, 1962). Seber (1984) is at a higher level. Pielou (1984) explains CDA as an ordination method i.e. without the MANOVA hypothesis-testing step. Personally I don't think that CD... |

9 |
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Citation Context ...ed throughout. There are no sections explicitly devoted to such "exotic" examples. Emphasis will be on point source discharges that are high in metals, for example freshwater/estuarine acidification (=-=Yan et al. 1996-=-; Locke et al. 1994; CJFAS 1994; Somerfield et al. 1994a, 1994b; Metcalfe-Smith and Green 1992; Hinch and Stephenson 1987; Yan and Strus 1980) and industrial discharges (Metcalfe-Smith et al. 1996), a... |

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Citation Context ...nly one dimension, or gradient, of differential group response is expected - e.g. where different concentrations of a contaminant (a contamination "gradient") are imposed on samples from a community (=-=Gray et al. 1988-=-). 3.1.3 Statistical computing software and references re: MV ANOVA and CDA MV ANOVA is easy to implement in most of the comprehensive general-purpose statistical packages (e.g. SAS, Minitab, SPSS, Sy... |

6 |
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Citation Context ...s 1980) and industrial discharges (Metcalfe-Smith et al. 1996), and marine oil & gas (Olsgard et al. 1997; Peterson et al. 1996; Kennicutt et al. 1996b; Hyland et al. 1994; Clarke 1993; Warwick 1993; =-=Chapman et al. 1991-=-) as well as mining discharges (Austen and4 Somerfield 1997; Somerfield et al. 1994a, 1994b). Workers in marine environments have developed powerful statistical tools which have been well tested in t... |

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6 |
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Citation Context ...ribed above can be combined, so that the biological response is predicted by both an ANOVA design and by continuous environmental variables . This is an analysis of covariance, or ANCOVA (Seber 1984; =-=Cox and McCullagh 1982-=-; Cooley and Lohnes 1971, 1962; Cochran 1957). As with ANOVA, ANCOVA can easily be done as an MV analysis. Whether UV or MV, ANCOVA used on observational data in environmental monitoring gets tricky b... |

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6 |
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Citation Context ...CJFAS 1994; Somerfield et al. 1994a, 1994b; Metcalfe-Smith and Green 1992; Hinch and Stephenson 1987; Yan and Strus 1980) and industrial discharges (Metcalfe-Smith et al. 1996), and marine oil & gas (=-=Olsgard et al. 1997-=-; Peterson et al. 1996; Kennicutt et al. 1996b; Hyland et al. 1994; Clarke 1993; Warwick 1993; Chapman et al. 1991) as well as mining discharges (Austen and4 Somerfield 1997; Somerfield et al. 1994a,... |