## Buddy Systems (1974)

Venue: | Communications of the ACM |

Citations: | 42 - 1 self |

### BibTeX

@ARTICLE{Peterson74buddysystems,

author = {James L. Peterson and Theodore A. Norman},

title = {Buddy Systems},

journal = {Communications of the ACM},

year = {1974},

volume = {20},

pages = {421--431}

}

### Years of Citing Articles

### OpenURL

### Abstract

Two algorithms are presented for implementing any of a class of buddy systems for dynamic storage allocation. Each buddy system corresponds to a set of recurrence relations which relate the block sizes provided to each other. Analyses of the internal fragmentation of the binary buddysystem, the Fibonai buddy system, and the weighted buddy system are given. Comparative simulation results are also presented for internal, external and total fragmentation.

### Citations

70 | A Fast Storage Allocator - Knowlton - 1965 |

18 | A Generalization of Fibonacci Numbers
- Harris, Styles
- 1964
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...s is then, k m L1 + Z Li'L(i) i=2 + elk+ 1' L(k+l)' The Fibonacci-like sequences which were suggested as the basis of a class of buddy systems by Hirschberg [4] have been studied by Harris and Styles =-=[3]-=- and Ferguson [2]. If we define, u i = 0 for isu 0 = 1, ui+ 1 = u i + ui_ p for i - 0, then we have L. = u. with 1 (i) = i - p - i i > p = 0 i_p. (For p=0 uo = 2i; for p=l, u = Fi+l). Then, ' 1 i 15 k... |

13 |
A class of dynamic memory allocation algorithms
- Hirschberg
- 1973
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...nagement scheme allocates blocks whose sizes are powers of two. (In this paper, we will call this system the binary buddy system to distinguish it from the other buddy systems considered.) Hirschberg =-=[4]-=-, taking Knuth's suggestion [6, Problem 2.5.31]has designed a Fibonacci buddy system with block sizes which are Fibonacci numbers. Shen and Peterson [12] have described an algorithm 2 k for a weighted... |

11 |
Analysis of free-storage algorithms
- Margolin, Parmelee, et al.
- 1971
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...butions, listed in Table 2, were the distribution of buffer requests on the UNIVAC 1108 Exec 8 system at the University of Maryland [4], the distribution of memory requests on an IBM/360 CP-67 system =-=[8]-=-, and the distribution of partition size requests on the IBM 360/65 OS MVT system at Brigham Young University. Note that the University of Maryland and Brigham Young University distributions are label... |

11 |
Statistical properties of the buddy system
- Stigler
- 1970
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...equence of requests and releases which precede overflow, and is therefore difficult to deal with nalytically, although some attempts to analyze other measures of external fragmentation have been made =-=[10]-=-. Internal and external fragmentation result from different properties of the buddy system, but both decrease the effective size of the available memory which is being managed by making portions of th... |

10 |
A weighted buddy method for dynamic storage allocation
- Shen, Peterson
- 1974
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...the other buddy systems considered.) Hirschberg [4], taking Knuth's suggestion [6, Problem 2.5.31]has designed a Fibonacci buddy system with block sizes which are Fibonacci numbers. Shen and Peterson =-=[12]-=- have described an algorithm 2 k for a weighted buddy system which provides blocks whose sizes are and 3.2 k. These three buddy system are similar in the overall design of the algorithm with the major... |

9 |
Internal fragmentation in a class of buddy systems
- Russell
- 1977
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...es and the distribution of requestsfor memory. Thus, it can be used as a point of comparison for buddy systems. A measure of internal fragmentation can be defined in several ways. Several researchers =-=[4,7,11]-=- have considered the ratio of average allocated space to average requested space. This measure is difcult to compare with external fragmentation in order to compute total fragmentation, however. Anoth... |

7 |
A simplified recombination scheme for the Fibonacci buddy system
- Cranston, Thomas
- 1975
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...orward, but the original procedure for-the Fibonacci buddy system was either limited to a small, fixed number of block sizes, or a time consuming computation [4]. A recent note by Cranston and Thomas =-=[1]-=- has removed this problem, and made the address calculation for the Fibonacci buddy system comparable with the address calculation for the binary or weighted buddy systems. Another important variation... |

5 |
On a Generalization of the Fibonacci Numbers Useful in Memory Allocation Schema; or All about the Zeroes of Z k - Z k _ 1 - 1, k > 0." The Fibonacci Quarterly 14
- Ferguson
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... + Z Li'L(i) i=2 + elk+ 1' L(k+l)' The Fibonacci-like sequences which were suggested as the basis of a class of buddy systems by Hirschberg [4] have been studied by Harris and Styles [3] and Ferguson =-=[2]-=-. If we define, u i = 0 for isu 0 = 1, ui+ 1 = u i + ui_ p for i - 0, then we have L. = u. with 1 (i) = i - p - i i > p = 0 i_p. (For p=0 uo = 2i; for p=l, u = Fi+l). Then, ' 1 i 15 k-p-1 m = u k + Uk... |

2 |
Zo Dynamic memory allocation systems for minimizing internal fragmentation
- Lewis, Smith, et al.
- 1974
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...es and the distribution of requestsfor memory. Thus, it can be used as a point of comparison for buddy systems. A measure of internal fragmentation can be defined in several ways. Several researchers =-=[4,7,11]-=- have considered the ratio of average allocated space to average requested space. This measure is difcult to compare with external fragmentation in order to compute total fragmentation, however. Anoth... |

1 |
The Art of Computer Prosramming, Volume 1: Fundamental A18orihms
- Knuth
- 1968
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...tem, weighted buddy system. CR Categories. 3.89, 4.32, 4.39 1. Introduction Two dynamic storage allocation algorithms derived from the buddy system have recently been proposed. Knowlton [5] and Knuth =-=[6]-=- described the original buddy system. This memory management scheme allocates blocks whose sizes are powers of two. (In this paper, we will call this system the binary buddy system to distinguish it f... |

1 | Tailored buddy systems for dynamic stocage allocation - Norman - 1975 |