## Approximating Maximum Weight Matching in Near-linear Time

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Citations: | 10 - 2 self |

### BibTeX

@MISC{Duan_approximatingmaximum,

author = {Ran Duan and Seth Pettie},

title = {Approximating Maximum Weight Matching in Near-linear Time},

year = {}

}

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### Abstract

Given a weighted graph, the maximum weight matching problem (MWM) is to find a set of vertex-disjoint edges with maximum weight. In the 1960s Edmonds showed that MWMs can be found in polynomial time. At present the fastest MWM algorithm, due to Gabow and Tarjan, runs in Õ(m √ n) time, where m and n are the number of edges and vertices in the graph. Surprisingly, restricted versions of the problem, such as computing (1 − ɛ)-approximate MWMs or finding maximum cardinality matchings, are not known to be much easier (on sparse graphs). The best algorithms for these problems also run in Õ(m √ n) time. In this paper we present the first near-linear time algorithm for computing (1 − ɛ)-approximate MWMs. Specifically, given an arbitrary real-weighted graph and ɛ> 0, our algorithm computes such a matching in O(mɛ −2 log 3 n) time. The previous best approximate MWM algorithm with comparable running time could only guarantee a (2/3 − ɛ)-approximate solution. In addition, we present a faster algorithm, running in O(m log n log ɛ −1) time, that computes a (3/4−ɛ)-approximate MWM.

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Citation Context ...f polynomial time computation with feasibility [8]. After decades of research on the problem, the computational complexity of finding an optimal matching remains quite open. (We recommend [33], [48], =-=[1]-=- for a review of definitions and algorithms.) In bipartite graphs, finding a maximum cardinality matching in polynomial time is trivial, but the same is not true in general graphs. In 1965 Edmonds pre... |

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Citation Context ...n) time. II. APPROXIMATE MWMS FOR SMALL WEIGHTS In this section we describe a simple algorithm for finding (1−ɛ)-MWMs in graphs with integer weights in {1, . . . , N} 2 The clustering libraries METIS =-=[27]-=-, PARTY [44], PT-SCOTCH [41] CHACO [23], and JOSTLE [51] all use some approximate matching routine. PARTY, for example, builds a hierarchical clustering by iteratively finding and contracting approxim... |

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Citation Context ...nput to output ports. In each cycle one partial permutation can be realized. Existing algorithms for choosing these matchings, such as iSLIP [35] and PIM [2], guarantee 1 2-MCMs and it has been shown =-=[36]-=-, [17] that (approximate) maximum weight matchings, where edge weights are based on queue-length, have good throughput guarantees. (Of course, computing exact MWMs is unrealistic in this application.)... |

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Citation Context ...switches packets are routed across a “switch fabric” from input to output ports. In each cycle one partial permutation can be realized. Existing algorithms for choosing these matchings, such as iSLIP =-=[35]-=- and PIM [2], guarantee 1 2-MCMs and it has been shown [36], [17] that (approximate) maximum weight matchings, where edge weights are based on queue-length, have good throughput guarantees. (Of course... |

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Citation Context ...he same is not true in general graphs. In 1965 Edmonds presented elegant polynomial time algorithms for finding matchings in general graphs with maximum cardinality (MCM) [8] and maximum weight (MWM) =-=[7]-=-. In the intervening years we have seen a succession of faster and more complex algorithms for solving these problems, usually based on new structural characterizations and more sophisticated data str... |

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Citation Context ...ent in our (1 − ɛ)-MWM algorithm for arbitrarily large weights, presented in Section III. We use the standard LP formulation of Edmonds [7], but maintain only “ɛoptimal” dual variables (see Bertsekas =-=[4]-=- and Gabow and Tarjan [15], [16]) with respect to the current matching. Roughly speaking, they satisfy the complementary slackness conditions up to an additive ɛ. Preliminaries: The algorithm maintain... |

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Citation Context ...rani’s [16], [18]. All of the algorithms cited above are based on incrementally improving a matching via augmenting paths. Using an algebraic characterization of the problem [45], Mucha and Sankowski =-=[39]-=- and Harvey [22] presented MCM algorithms whose running time is roughly O(n ω ), the complexity of square matrix multiplication. If the input graph is weighted one may naturally ask for a matching who... |

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Citation Context ...ching without length 2k − 3 augmenting paths is a (1 − 1/k)-MCM, and that (i,ii) imply that O( √ n) phases 1 A complete description and proof of correctness of the MicaliVazirani algorithm appears in =-=[49]-=-. The Micali-Vazirani algorithm was preceded by one of Even and Kariv [10] who claimed a running time of O(min{n 5/2 , m √ n log n}) in an extended abstract. However, a complete description of the alg... |

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Citation Context ... so as to minimize the communication cost in certain algorithms [28], [29], [24]. Maximum weight matching algorithms are used as a heuristic preprocessing step in several sparse linear system solvers =-=[40]-=-, [6], [47], [19]. The goal is to permute the rows/columns to maximize the weight on or near the main diagonal. Definitions and Conventions: The input is a graph G = (V, E, w) where |V | = n, |E| = m,... |

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Citation Context ... algorithm—iteratively choose the maximum weight edge not incident to previously chosen edges—produces a 1 2-MWM. A straightforward implementation of this algorithm takes O(m log n) time. Preis [43], =-=[5]-=-, reviving the δ-MWM problem from its long slumber, gave a 1 2-MWM algorithm running in linear time. Vinkemeier and Hougardy [50] and Pettie and Sanders [42] proposed several ( 2 3 − ɛ)-MWM algorithms... |

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Citation Context ...(i,ii) imply that O( √ n) phases 1 A complete description and proof of correctness of the MicaliVazirani algorithm appears in [49]. The Micali-Vazirani algorithm was preceded by one of Even and Kariv =-=[10]-=- who claimed a running time of O(min{n 5/2 , m √ n log n}) in an extended abstract. However, a complete description of the algorithm was never published.suffice to compute an MCM. Surprisingly, the b... |

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Citation Context ...generalize Micali and Vazirani’s [16], [18]. All of the algorithms cited above are based on incrementally improving a matching via augmenting paths. Using an algebraic characterization of the problem =-=[45]-=-, Mucha and Sankowski [39] and Harvey [22] presented MCM algorithms whose running time is roughly O(n ω ), the complexity of square matrix multiplication. If the input graph is weighted one may natura... |

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Citation Context ... APPROXIMATE MWMS FOR SMALL WEIGHTS In this section we describe a simple algorithm for finding (1−ɛ)-MWMs in graphs with integer weights in {1, . . . , N} 2 The clustering libraries METIS [27], PARTY =-=[44]-=-, PT-SCOTCH [41] CHACO [23], and JOSTLE [51] all use some approximate matching routine. PARTY, for example, builds a hierarchical clustering by iteratively finding and contracting approximate MWMs. Pr... |

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Citation Context ...e the communication cost in certain algorithms [28], [29], [24]. Maximum weight matching algorithms are used as a heuristic preprocessing step in several sparse linear system solvers [40], [6], [47], =-=[19]-=-. The goal is to permute the rows/columns to maximize the weight on or near the main diagonal. Definitions and Conventions: The input is a graph G = (V, E, w) where |V | = n, |E| = m, and w : E → R. A... |

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Citation Context ...the δ-MWM problem from its long slumber, gave a 1 2-MWM algorithm running in linear time. Vinkemeier and Hougardy [50] and Pettie and Sanders [42] proposed several ( 2 3 − ɛ)-MWM algorithms (see also =-=[37]-=-) running in O(m log ɛ−1 ) time; each is based on iteratively improving a matching by identifying sets of short weight-augmenting paths and cycles. No linear time algorithms with approximation ratio b... |

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Citation Context ...ords. Gabow and Tarjan [15], [16] gave bit-scaling algorithms for MWM running in O(m √ n log(nN)) time in bipartite graphs and O(m √ n log n log(nN)) time in general graphs. Extending [39], Sankowski =-=[46]-=- gave an O(Nn ω )-time MWM algorithm for bipartite graphs. Approximation Algorithms: Let a δ-MWM be a matching whose weight is at least a δ fraction of the maximum weight matching, where 0 < δ ≤ 1, an... |

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Citation Context ...inimize the communication cost in certain algorithms [28], [29], [24]. Maximum weight matching algorithms are used as a heuristic preprocessing step in several sparse linear system solvers [40], [6], =-=[47]-=-, [19]. The goal is to permute the rows/columns to maximize the weight on or near the main diagonal. Definitions and Conventions: The input is a graph G = (V, E, w) where |V | = n, |E| = m, and w : E ... |

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Citation Context ...section we describe a simple algorithm for finding (1−ɛ)-MWMs in graphs with integer weights in {1, . . . , N} 2 The clustering libraries METIS [27], PARTY [44], PT-SCOTCH [41] CHACO [23], and JOSTLE =-=[51]-=- all use some approximate matching routine. PARTY, for example, builds a hierarchical clustering by iteratively finding and contracting approximate MWMs. Preis’s algorithm [43] was specifically motiva... |

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Citation Context ...]. All of the algorithms cited above are based on incrementally improving a matching via augmenting paths. Using an algebraic characterization of the problem [45], Mucha and Sankowski [39] and Harvey =-=[22]-=- presented MCM algorithms whose running time is roughly O(n ω ), the complexity of square matrix multiplication. If the input graph is weighted one may naturally ask for a matching whose weight is min... |

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Citation Context ...lgorithm takes O(m log n) time. Preis [43], [5], reviving the δ-MWM problem from its long slumber, gave a 1 2-MWM algorithm running in linear time. Vinkemeier and Hougardy [50] and Pettie and Sanders =-=[42]-=- proposed several ( 2 3 − ɛ)-MWM algorithms (see also [37]) running in O(m log ɛ−1 ) time; each is based on iteratively improving a matching by identifying sets of short weight-augmenting paths and cy... |

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Citation Context ... to minimize the communication cost in certain algorithms [28], [29], [24]. Maximum weight matching algorithms are used as a heuristic preprocessing step in several sparse linear system solvers [40], =-=[6]-=-, [47], [19]. The goal is to permute the rows/columns to maximize the weight on or near the main diagonal. Definitions and Conventions: The input is a graph G = (V, E, w) where |V | = n, |E| = m, and ... |

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Citation Context ...o output ports. In each cycle one partial permutation can be realized. Existing algorithms for choosing these matchings, such as iSLIP [35] and PIM [2], guarantee 1 2-MCMs and it has been shown [36], =-=[17]-=- that (approximate) maximum weight matchings, where edge weights are based on queue-length, have good throughput guarantees. (Of course, computing exact MWMs is unrealistic in this application.) Appro... |

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Citation Context ... several clustering libraries. 2 These clustering algorithms are used, for example, to partition a graph across many parallel processors so as to minimize the communication cost in certain algorithms =-=[28]-=-, [29], [24]. Maximum weight matching algorithms are used as a heuristic preprocessing step in several sparse linear system solvers [40], [6], [47], [19]. The goal is to permute the rows/columns to ma... |

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Citation Context ...the maximum matching problem is intertwined with the development of modern graph theory, combinatorial optimization, matroid theory, and the conflation of polynomial time computation with feasibility =-=[8]-=-. After decades of research on the problem, the computational complexity of finding an optimal matching remains quite open. (We recommend [33], [48], [1] for a review of definitions and algorithms.) I... |

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Citation Context ... WEIGHTS In this section we describe a simple algorithm for finding (1−ɛ)-MWMs in graphs with integer weights in {1, . . . , N} 2 The clustering libraries METIS [27], PARTY [44], PT-SCOTCH [41] CHACO =-=[23]-=-, and JOSTLE [51] all use some approximate matching routine. PARTY, for example, builds a hierarchical clustering by iteratively finding and contracting approximate MWMs. Preis’s algorithm [43] was sp... |

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Citation Context ...aphs running in O(m √ n) time, where m and n are the number of edges and vertices. 1 Over the years others have proposed alternative O(m √ n)-time MCM algorithms that generalize Micali and Vazirani’s =-=[16]-=-, [18]. All of the algorithms cited above are based on incrementally improving a matching via augmenting paths. Using an algebraic characterization of the problem [45], Mucha and Sankowski [39] and Ha... |

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Citation Context ... complex data structures. Faster algorithms are known when the edge weights are bounded integers in [−N, . . . , N], where a word RAM model is assumed, with log(max{N, n})-bit words. Gabow and Tarjan =-=[15]-=-, [16] gave bit-scaling algorithms for MWM running in O(m √ n log(nN)) time in bipartite graphs and O(m √ n log n log(nN)) time in general graphs. Extending [39], Sankowski [46] gave an O(Nn ω )-time ... |

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Citation Context ...stering libraries. 2 These clustering algorithms are used, for example, to partition a graph across many parallel processors so as to minimize the communication cost in certain algorithms [28], [29], =-=[24]-=-. Maximum weight matching algorithms are used as a heuristic preprocessing step in several sparse linear system solvers [40], [6], [47], [19]. The goal is to permute the rows/columns to maximize the w... |

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Citation Context ...al clustering libraries. 2 These clustering algorithms are used, for example, to partition a graph across many parallel processors so as to minimize the communication cost in certain algorithms [28], =-=[29]-=-, [24]. Maximum weight matching algorithms are used as a heuristic preprocessing step in several sparse linear system solvers [40], [6], [47], [19]. The goal is to permute the rows/columns to maximize... |

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Citation Context ...S FOR SMALL WEIGHTS In this section we describe a simple algorithm for finding (1−ɛ)-MWMs in graphs with integer weights in {1, . . . , N} 2 The clustering libraries METIS [27], PARTY [44], PT-SCOTCH =-=[41]-=- CHACO [23], and JOSTLE [51] all use some approximate matching routine. PARTY, for example, builds a hierarchical clustering by iteratively finding and contracting approximate MWMs. Preis’s algorithm ... |