## A Formal Approach to the Definition and the Design of Conceptual Schemata for Database Systems (1982)

Venue: | ACM TODS |

Citations: | 7 - 1 self |

### BibTeX

@ARTICLE{Zaniolo82aformal,

author = {Carlo Zaniolo and Michel A. Melkanoff},

title = {A Formal Approach to the Definition and the Design of Conceptual Schemata for Database Systems},

journal = {ACM TODS},

year = {1982},

volume = {7}

}

### OpenURL

### Abstract

This paper presents a rigorous approach to the definition and the design of graphical schemata in the framework of the relational data model. This approach uses and applies various concepts and analytical tools which were presented in a companion paper [33]

### Citations

1370 | The Entity-Relationship Model, Towards a Unified View of Data
- Chen
- 1976
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...tructure of external data in an implementation-independent fashion. Among the many which were proposed are those presented in [9, 25, 271. Of these, we only discuss E-R (entity-relationship) diagrams =-=[9]-=-, which have gained considerable acceptance in the field. A common thrust of these works consists in analyzing and characterizing by means of examples the various relationships commonly encountered in... |

118 | Multivalued dependencies and a new normal form for relational databases
- FAGIN
- 1977
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...cture with minimum redundancy. However, the style of the schemata discussed here is not the usual one first proposed in [ll] (third normal form) and later refined in [ 121 (BoyceCodd normal form) and =-=[14]-=- (fourth normal form). The normal form approach relies on the concept of key; it also assumes that unnecessary proliferation of relations should be avoided to eliminate complexity and possibly redunda... |

106 |
Computational problems related to the design of normal form relational schemas
- Beeri, Bernstein
- 1979
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...and minimally represents the Z-structure of the initial relation, its A-structure is captured by ACOVER and ZCOVk’R combined. Efficient algorithms to verify conditions (4.1) and (4.2) can be found i=-=n [4]-=- and [3], respectively. An algorithm for deriving the multiple elementary MDs in projections of a given relation was presented in [33]. Application of this decomposition algorithm to our example DEPT ... |

67 |
The theory of joins in relational databases
- Aho, Beeri, et al.
- 1979
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ta. For concreteness, let us consider an example. Assume that we need some information regarding departments of a given organization. More precisely, we are interested in the following relationships: =-=(1)-=- the employees working in a department (an employee works in only one department); (2) the salary of each employee (an employee only has one salary); (3) the name of the department manager (a departme... |

62 | A complete axiomatization for functional and multivalued dependencies in database relations - Beeri, Fagin, et al. - 1977 |

41 |
A sophisticate’s introduction to database normalization theory
- Beeri, Bernstein, et al.
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...1982.s26 9 C. Zaniolo and M. A. Mblkanoff joins, functional dependencies, and multivalued dependencies. Date’s book [13] provides the reader with an introduction to these topics, whereas Beeri et al=-=. [5] s-=-upply a sophisticate’s review and a list of more advanced readings. The notation and terminology used here is the same as that used in [33]. Thus, if R (iI) is a relation with attribute set a, and r... |

40 |
Database abstractions: Aggregation
- SMITH, P
- 1977
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...the designer in his choice. For instance, in [17] it is suggested that entities should have a unique key attribute and at least one other attribute. Useful concepts on this issue can also be found in =-=[29]-=-. Finally, the work of [30] ACM Transactions on Database Systems, Vol. 7, No. 1, March 1982sConceptual Schemata for Database Systems - 55 suggests that this problem can be attached in the framework of... |

38 |
On the membership problem for functional and multivalued dependencies in relational databases
- Beeri
- 1980
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...mally represents the Z-structure of the initial relation, its A-structure is captured by ACOVER and ZCOVk’R combined. Efficient algorithms to verify conditions (4.1) and (4.2) can be found in [4] an=-=d [3]-=-, respectively. An algorithm for deriving the multiple elementary MDs in projections of a given relation was presented in [33]. Application of this decomposition algorithm to our example DEPT produces... |

34 |
Independent components of relations
- Rissanen
- 1977
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...(2.4) into atomic subrelations yields 1. IIDEPT (E#, DN) 2. IIDEPT (E#, SAL) 3. HDEPT (DN, MGN) 4. HDEPT (DN, LOC). ’ These notions also underlie the concept of “independent components” of a rel=-=ation [24]-=-. ACM Tnmsactions on Database Systems, Vol. 7, No. 1, March 1982. (2.5)sConceptual Schemata for Database Systems l 31 Now, assume that the intension of our relation DEPT changes such that more than on... |

32 | Further normalization of the database relational model - CODD - 1972 |

30 | Relations and entities - Hall, Owlett, et al. - 1976 |

28 | Analysis and design of relational schemata for database systems - ZANIOLO - 1916 |

21 | Recent investigations in relational database systems - Codd - 1974 |

13 | Concepts for Modelling Information - Falkenberg - 1976 |

7 |
An Introduction to Database Systems. 2nd Ed
- Date
- 1977
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... relations, projections, ACM ‘ikmsactions on Database Systems, Vol. 7, No. 1, March 1982.s26 9 C. Zaniolo and M. A. Mblkanoff joins, functional dependencies, and multivalued dependencies. Date’s b=-=ook [13] p-=-rovides the reader with an introduction to these topics, whereas Beeri et al. [5] supply a sophisticate’s review and a list of more advanced readings. The notation and terminology used here is the s... |

7 |
Database Design and Translation for Multiple Data Models
- KATZ
- 1980
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... of data may also be different and, perhaps, consists of normalized relations. The problem of designing internal and external schemata in this context, which has been the subject of previous research =-=[20,32]-=-, is outside the scope of this paper. ACM Transactions on Database Systems, Vol. 7, No. 1, March 1982.sFig. 3. A graph representation for an atomic decomposition of DEPT. 3.2 Structure and Properties ... |

6 |
On the design of relational database schemata
- ZANIOLO, MELKANOFF
- 1981
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...tion and the design of graphical schemata in the framework of the relational data model. This approach uses and applies various concepts and analytical tools which were presented in a companion paper =-=[33]. -=-2. BASIC CONCEPTS We assume that the reader is familiar with the most common concepts pertaining to relational database theory, including the definition of relations, projections, ACM ‘ikmsactions o... |

5 | The Decomposition versus the Synthetic Approach to Relational Database Design - Fagin - 1977 |

5 |
On the semantics of the entity-relationship data model. In Entity-Relationship Approach to Systems Analysis and Design
- LIEN
- 1980
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...h do not participate in some or all of relationships 5, 6, and 7. Then, the relationships of Figure 16 can be considered the projections of one relation only if this is allowed to contain null values =-=[21]. -=-The correspondence between CAZ-graphs and E-R diagrams exposes a problem area which is not discussed in Chen’s paper. This problem is caused by elementary FDs of nonatomic scope which were discussed... |

3 |
The information preserving properties of relational database transformations
- Arora, Carlson
- 1978
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...r the lossless join concept described in [l]. Preservation of structural information has been ensured with respect to both FDs and MDsthus in a more general context than the one discussed in [24] and =-=[2]-=-. As a result of this, the elementary FDs of the given relation are either represented by the resulting CAZ-graph or inferable from it by the FD inference rules. The MDs of the original relation are i... |

3 |
Decomposition of relations and synthesis of entity-relationship diagrams
- MELKANOFF, ZANIOLO
- 1980
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...existing among these attributes. Finally, he will apply the design procedure given in the last section to obtain an E-R diagram representing the relationships between these entities. For instance, in =-=[22]-=- we discuss various choices of entities for our DMV example, and we give the corresponding E-R diagrams. This approach, therefore, allows the designer to select the aggregates he wants to use as entit... |

3 | Using semantic networks for database management - Roussoouos, MYLOPOULOS - 1975 |

3 | On the semantics of the relational data model - SCHMID, SWENSON - 1975 |

2 |
Graphs and Hypergruphs
- BERGE
- 1973
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ll enable us to derive some important results on the structure of minimal atomic decompositions and its relationship to the MD structure of the original relation. The interested reader is referred to =-=[7]-=- for a more complete and general treatment of the properties of hypergraphs. A hypergraph consists of vertices and edges just like an ordinary graph, but the edges of a hypergraph can contain one or m... |

1 |
Synthesizing thiid normal form relations from functional dependencies
- BERNSTEIN
- 1976
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...] consists of a set of relations and for each relation the specification of one or more keys. If l? is a key for R, and A an attribute of R not in l?, then the FD “f: r + A” must hold in R. Follow=-=ing [8]-=-, we will say that fis embodied in R. Thus keys can be regarded as a device to specify the existence of certain FDs in a relation. The set of FDs specified consists of those directly embodied plus tho... |

1 | The entity-relationship model-A basis for the enterprise view of data - CHEN - 1977 |

1 |
A model and a method for logical database design
- FLORY, KOULOUMIDJAN
- 1978
(Show Context)
Citation Context .... This is a reasonable policy since the question as to what constitutes an entity has a subjective answer. Some guidelines are, however, available to help the designer in his choice. For instance, in =-=[17]-=- it is suggested that entities should have a unique key attribute and at least one other attribute. Useful concepts on this issue can also be found in [29]. Finally, the work of [30] ACM Transactions ... |

1 |
Mutual dependencies and some results on undecomposable relations
- NICHOLAS
- 1978
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ctions. As we know, the semantic constraints obeyed by these relations cannot be SN ACM Transactions on Database Systems, Vol. 7, No. 1, March 1982.s46 * C. Zaniolo and M. A. Melkanoff modeled by MDs =-=[23]-=-. Whether minimality can be violated for decomposition of relations which only obey constraints expressible in terms of FDs and MDs is still an open problem. Say, therefore, that our conservative desi... |

1 |
On the optimization of the entity-relationship model
- SAKAY
- 1978
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...as CAZ-graphs, we have used the latter in our formal development. Nevertheless, a practitioner could reasonably * The use of dependencies in analyzing and improving E-R diagrams was also discussed in =-=[26]-=-. ACM Transactions on Database Systems, Vol. 7, No. 1, March 1982.s56 * C. Zaniolo and M. A. Melkanoff adopt a more pragmatic view by observing that elementary FDs of nonatomic scope are rare in pract... |

1 |
Decomposition of universal relation schemas allowing interrelational dependencies. (Manuscript submitted for publication
- SILVA, MELKANOFF
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...according to some well-defined design criterion. Nevertheless, this is a topic which deserves further investigation. For instance, various extensions and improvements to the algorithm are proposed in =-=[28]-=-. When thinking of graphical schemata for databases, one normally envisions diagrams describing the whole database or at least substantial portions of it. Clearly, it is possible to describe a whole d... |

1 |
Name independence and database abstraction in the relational model
- SPYRATOS, BANCILHON
- 1978
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... For instance, in [17] it is suggested that entities should have a unique key attribute and at least one other attribute. Useful concepts on this issue can also be found in [29]. Finally, the work of =-=[30]-=- ACM Transactions on Database Systems, Vol. 7, No. 1, March 1982sConceptual Schemata for Database Systems - 55 suggests that this problem can be attached in the framework of FDs and MDs. This is the v... |

1 |
Eds.) The ANSI/XWSPARC DBMS framework report of the study group on database management systems
- TSICHRITZIS, KLuG
- 1978
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...chemata in database management systems (DBMSs) are expected to yield benefits in three domains: (a) Data Independence. A three schema level architecture, such as the one proposed by the ANSI/X3/SPARC =-=[31], -=-provides a high degree of physical and logical data independence. In this architecture the conceptual schema occupies a central position between the multiple views seen by the users Authors’ present... |