## Journal of Mathematical Psychology

### BibTeX

@MISC{A_journalof,

author = {Shane T. Mueller A and Adam Krawitz B},

title = {Journal of Mathematical Psychology},

year = {}

}

### OpenURL

### Abstract

This article appeared in a journal published by Elsevier. The attached copy is furnished to the author for internal non-commercial research and education use, including for instruction at the authors institution and sharing with colleagues. Other uses, including reproduction and distribution, or selling or licensing copies, or posting to personal, institutional or third party websites are prohibited. In most cases authors are permitted to post their version of the article (e.g. in Word or Tex form) to their personal website or institutional repository. Authors requiring further information regarding Elsevier’s archiving and manuscript policies are encouraged to visit:

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(Show Context)
Citation Context ...conventional strategic games until recently (Abalo & Kostreva, 2004, 2005), and emerging recognition of otherregarding utilities in psychological and behavioral game theory (Bolton & Ockenfels, 2000; =-=Fehr & Schmidt, 1999-=-) has imbued it with contemporary relevance.Author's personal copy 168 A.M. Colman et al. / Journal of Mathematical Psychology 55 (2011) 166–175 We consider a game 1 G := � � N, (Si) i∈N , (Ui) i∈N ,... |

452 | Convention: A Philosophical Study - Lewis - 1969 |

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406 | ERC: a theory of equity, reciprocity and competition
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Citation Context ...brium was not examined in conventional strategic games until recently (Abalo & Kostreva, 2004, 2005), and emerging recognition of otherregarding utilities in psychological and behavioral game theory (=-=Bolton & Ockenfels, 2000-=-; Fehr & Schmidt, 1999) has imbued it with contemporary relevance.Author's personal copy 168 A.M. Colman et al. / Journal of Mathematical Psychology 55 (2011) 166–175 We consider a game 1 G := � � N,... |

365 | Progress in Behavioral Game Theory; in
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Citation Context ...at i assigns to ui (own) and uj (co-player’s) objective payoffs, respectively. Economists who have explored other-regarding utilities have generally reverted to this more general interpretation (e.g. =-=Camerer, 1997-=-, pp. 169–170; Fehr & Schmidt, 1999; Rabin, 1993). 5. Conclusions Berge equilibrium provides a compelling model of cooperation in social dilemmas, including the Prisoner’s Dilemma and n-Player Prisone... |

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An Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation
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Citation Context ...rationality and common knowledge, this implies the emergence of Berge equilibria in games in which they exist. The existence of pure altruism has been debated by philosophers for centuries (see, e.g. =-=Bentham, 1789-=-; Comte, 1851/1875; Hume, 1739–1740), and there are skeptics who have argued that selfish egoism or individualism must be tautologically true, because people’s actions reveal their individual preferen... |

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233 |
The Problem of Hidden Variables in Quantum Mechanics
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Citation Context ...ormulate temporal Bell inequalities with only one observable. We are now going to derive a particular form of temporal Bell inequality inspired by an argument of Kochen and Specker (d’Espagnat, 1979; =-=Kochen & Specker, 1967-=-; Mermin, 1990), before we show how they are violated in the Necker–Zeno model (Section 5) and discuss possible interpretations of such a violation (Section 6). As in the Necker–Zeno model of Section ... |

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Experimental tests of Bell’s inequalities using timevarying analyzers
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Citation Context ...es, Bell himself was among the first to accept that quantum theory provides a correct picture of reality. After the precise and convincing measurements of Aspect and collaborators in the early 1980s (=-=Aspect, Dalibard, & Roger, 1982-=-), only few mostly skeptical physicists maintained doubts. In detail, Bell’s inequalities essentially rely on three fundamental assumptions (compare, e.g. d’Espagnat, 1979). 1. Objective Realism: For ... |

164 |
relative state” formulation of quantum mechanics
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Citation Context ... commute with the dynamics, i.e. the Hamiltonian of the system (σ1 in our case), then two 4 Sometimes, in particular by proponents of the many-world interpretation of quantum mechanics (deWitt, 1970; =-=Everett, 1957-=-), objective realism is simply defined as the ontic existence of a quantum state. We interpret this ontic existence in the sense of ‘‘elements of reality’’ as discussed by Einstein, Podolsky, and Rose... |

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Word length and the structure of short-term memory
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Citation Context ...required to rapidly articulate a list of memory-span length. 2.1. Schweickert and Boruff’s list-based model Initial empirical observations of the relationship between speech rate and memory accuracy (=-=Baddeley et al., 1975-=-; Standing et al., 1980) noted that there appeared to be a linear relationship between the length of a list that can be recalled correctly and speech rate, embodied by the equation s = k · r + c, wher... |

124 | Short-term retention of individual verbal items
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Citation Context ...suffix experiments may not provide informative estimates of decay times. 1.3. The Brown–Peterson task Over the years, a number of studies have used variations of the Brown–Peterson task (Brown, 1958; =-=Peterson & Peterson, 1959-=-) to determine the decay properties of verbal information in shortterm memory. For example, in Peterson and Peterson’s (1959) original study, participants were presented with letter trigrams which had... |

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Some tests of the decay theory of immediate memory. Quart J Exp Psychol 10:12--21
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Citation Context ...rom stimulus suffix experiments may not provide informative estimates of decay times. 1.3. The Brown–Peterson task Over the years, a number of studies have used variations of the Brown–Peterson task (=-=Brown, 1958-=-; Peterson & Peterson, 1959) to determine the decay properties of verbal information in shortterm memory. For example, in Peterson and Peterson’s (1959) original study, participants were presented wit... |

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Statistical Distributions
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Citation Context ...sampled decay time could be below zero, meaning there would be some lists that decayed before they were presented. Kieras et al. (1999) adopted a two-parameter version of the log-normal distribution (=-=Hastings & Peacock, 1975-=-), which we will consider here. The density function for the log-normal distribution is: f (t) = 1 tσ √ 2π exp { −(log(t/M)) 2 2σ 2 } σ > 0; M, t ≥ 0; (6) and its survival function S(t) can be express... |

82 | Principles of learning and memory - Crowder - 1976 |

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The Zeno’s paradox in quantum theory
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Citation Context ...etween two states 1 and 2 as a function of time t. 3.1. Mathematical formulation The mathematical framework of the Necker–Zeno model is inspired by the mathematics of a two-state quantum Zeno effect (=-=Misra & Sudarshan, 1977-=-). However, we emphasize that we do not consider a phenomenon in the sense of quantum physics to be responsible for the switching dynamics. Our formal description exclusively refers to mental states a... |

62 | A production system theory of serial memory - Anderson, Matessa - 1997 |

62 |
Quantum games and quantum strategies
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Citation Context ...e science, mainly from the viewpoint of quantum logic and quantum probabilities. A focus of applications of their work has been the formation and processing of concepts. Aspects of game theory (e.g., =-=Eisert, Wilkens, & Lewenstein, 1999-=-), context effects 0022-2496/$ – see front matter © 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/j.jmp.2009.12.001Author's personal copy H. Atmanspacher, T. Filk / Journal of Mathematical Psyc... |

57 | Towards a network model of the articulatory loop - Burgess, Hitch - 1992 |

57 |
Anomalies: Ultimatums, dictators and manners
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Citation Context ...s are at stake (Parco, Rapoport, & Stein, 2002); and in the Ultimatum game, players almost always behave more cooperatively or altruistically than is required by the subgame-perfect Nash equilibrium (=-=Camerer & Thaler, 1995-=-). In all such games, intuition and experimental evidence strongly favor strategy choices that deviate systematically from those mandated by motivations that are purely selfish in terms of objective p... |

50 |
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Citation Context ...any game, then e strictly payoff-dominates f if Ui(e) > Ui(f ) for all i ∈ N. Any game with multiple Nash equilibria, including one that payoff-dominates all others, is called a common interest game (=-=Aumann & Sorin, 1989-=-). The payoff dominance principle is the assumption that if an equilibrium e payoff-dominates all others in a common interest game, then rational players will choose and play the component strategies ... |

44 | Memory for serial order - LEWANDOWSKY, MURDOCK - 1989 |

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Citation Context ...ations in seconds of the log-normal distribution for experiments reporting only memory spans, and plotted in Figs. 6 and 7. Data set Median Spread Mean duration a. Standing et al., 1980 4 0.5 4.53 b. =-=Hulme et al., 1991-=-, Words 23 1.6 83 c. Hulme et al., 1991, Nonwords 7 1 11.5 d. Hulme et al., 1991, Italian before 3.6 0.1 3.62 e. Hulme et al., 1991, Italian after 11.5 1.2 23.63 f. Hulme et al., 1991, English (both) ... |

41 |
When does "economic man" dominate social behavior? Science 311
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Citation Context ...atisfying the definition (1) of a Berge equilibrium provided earlier. A large body of empirical evidence reveals that cooperation is very common, even in unrepeated n-Player Prisoner’s Dilemma games (=-=Camerer & Fehr, 2006-=-, Colman, 1995, chap. 9, Colman, 2003, Sally, 1995, Suleiman, Budescu, Fischer, & Messick, 2004), and these findings are difficult to understand within the conceptual framework of game theory. In soci... |

39 | Applications of quantum statistics in psychological studies of decision processes
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(Show Context)
Citation Context ...nd physics started to become investigated for concrete empirically accessible situations. To our knowledge, first pioneering work in this direction was carried out by Aerts and his group in Brussels (=-=Aerts & Aerts, 1994-=-), from which a long record of publications emerged that has recently been reviewed by Aerts (2009). Aerts and collaborators studied various kinds of problems in psychology and cognitive science, main... |

38 | Order and position in primary memory for letter strings - Lee, Estes - 1977 |

37 | Remembering over the short-term: The case against the standard model - Nairne - 2002 |

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34 |
What’s wrong with these elements of reality
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Citation Context ...nequalities with only one observable. We are now going to derive a particular form of temporal Bell inequality inspired by an argument of Kochen and Specker (d’Espagnat, 1979; Kochen & Specker, 1967; =-=Mermin, 1990-=-), before we show how they are violated in the Necker–Zeno model (Section 5) and discuss possible interpretations of such a violation (Section 6). As in the Necker–Zeno model of Section 3, we refer to... |

33 |
Short-term memory capacity: Magic number or magic spell
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- 1986
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...s in seconds for different decay distributions. The one-parameter exponential decay distribution is not shown. Log-normal decay Uniform decay Exponential decay Median Spread Min Max Median Min λ Mean =-=Schweickert & Boruff, 1986-=-, digits 3.778 0.381 1.646 7.944 4.795 1.653 0.171 7.496 Schweickert & Boruff, 1986, colors 3.229 0.525 1.142 5.854 3.498 1.170 0.244 5.269 Schweickert & Boruff, 1986, consonants 3.157 0.461 1.247 5.7... |

33 |
Evidence for altruism: Toward a pluralism of prosocial motives
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(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ve empirical evidence that it can be elicited reliably by exposing research participants to certain circumstances, such as the plight of a suffering victim calculated to elicit empathic emotions (see =-=Batson & Shaw, 1991-=-, for a critical review of many of the classic studies). For example, Batson and Ahmad (2001) asked participants to choose second in a one-shot Prisoner Dilemma game, knowing that the co-player had al... |

32 | An endogenous distributed model of ordering in serial recall - Farrell, Lewandowsky - 2002 |

32 | An atlas of interpersonal situations - Kelley, Holmes, et al. - 2003 |

31 |
Weak quantum theory: complementarity and entanglement in physics and
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(Show Context)
Citation Context ... Wang, & Townsend, 2006) were later elaborated in detail by other groups. Beginning in 2000, we developed an alternative approach, mainly embedded in the formal framework of algebraic quantum theory (=-=Atmanspacher, Römer, & Walach, 2002-=-). It was first referred to as ‘‘weak quantum theory’’, but later this was replaced by ‘‘generalized quantum theory’’ (GQT). 1 Different from the approach by Aerts, it is explicitly based on the non-c... |

31 |
On the problem of hidden variables in quantum theory
- Bell
- 1966
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...espect to all properties. In other words, superposition states entail quantum nonlocality. The fundamental idea to test such non-classical behavior in quantum physical situations is due to John Bell (=-=Bell, 1966-=-) who derived what are now known as Bell inequalities. Whenever Bell inequalities are violated, this is a key indication for non-classical behavior typical for quantum systems. In this way Bell inequa... |

31 |
Quantum dynamics of human decision making
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(Show Context)
Citation Context ...served. doi:10.1016/j.jmp.2009.12.001Author's personal copy H. Atmanspacher, T. Filk / Journal of Mathematical Psychology 54 (2010) 314–321 315 (e.g., Bruza & Cole, 2005), and decision making (e.g., =-=Busemeyer, Wang, & Townsend, 2006-=-) were later elaborated in detail by other groups. Beginning in 2000, we developed an alternative approach, mainly embedded in the formal framework of algebraic quantum theory (Atmanspacher, Römer, & ... |

31 |
Communication, coordination and Nash equilibrium
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- 1988
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ecification of the game, introducing either repetitions (e.g. Aumann & Sorin, 1989), a ‘‘cheap talk’’ stage during which players can make costless announcements before choosing their strategies (e.g. =-=Farrell, 1988-=-), modifications of the assumption that players know that they choose their strategies independently (e.g. Colman & Bacharach, 1997; Krueger, 2008; Krueger & Acevedo, 2007), or special modes of reason... |