## The ant colony optimization meta-heuristic (1999)

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Venue: | in New Ideas in Optimization |

Citations: | 343 - 23 self |

### BibTeX

@INPROCEEDINGS{Dorigo99theant,

author = {Marco Dorigo and Gianni Di Caro},

title = {The ant colony optimization meta-heuristic},

booktitle = {in New Ideas in Optimization},

year = {1999},

pages = {11--32},

publisher = {McGraw-Hill}

}

### Years of Citing Articles

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### Abstract

Ant algorithms are multi-agent systems in which the behavior of each single agent, called artificial ant or ant for short in the following, is inspired by the behavior of real ants. Ant algorithms are one of the most successful examples of swarm intelligent systems [3], and have been applied to many types of problems, ranging from the classical traveling salesman

### Citations

936 | The Ant System: Optimization by a colony of cooperating agents
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(Show Context)
Citation Context ...an problem 2.4.1 The traveling salesman problem The traveling salesman problem plays an important role in ant colony optimization because it was the first problem to be attacked by these methods (see =-=[16, 21, 22]-=-). The TSP was chosen for many reasons: (i) it is a problem to which the ant colony metaphor is easily adapted, (ii) it is one of the most studied NP-hard [37, 43] problems in combinatorial optimizati... |

728 | Ant colony system: A cooperative learning approach to the traveling saleman problem
- Dorigo, Gambardella
- 1997
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...e added giving them a very high length. 8In the following we will present Ant System, a paradigmatic example of how ACO algorithms can be applied to the TSP. Extensions of Ant System can be found in =-=[6, 20, 48]-=-. 2.4.2 Ant System for the TSP Ant System (AS), which was the first (1991) [16, 21] ACO algorithm, was designed as a set of three ant algorithms differing for the way the pheromone trail was updated b... |

525 |
Tabu Search - part
- GLOVER
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Citation Context ... quality of the solution the connection is part of. 9 The term tabu list is used here to indicate a simple memory that contains the set of already visited cities, and has no relation with tabu search =-=[29, 30]-=-. 10 The heuristic values used are ηij =1/dij, where dij is the distance between cities i and j. In other words, the shorter the distance between two cities i and j, the higher the heuristic value ηij... |

506 |
The Connection Machine
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- 1985
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Citation Context ...ese implementations are briefly reviewed in the following. • The first parallel versions of an ACO algorithm was Bolondi and Bondanza’s implementation of AS for the TSP on the Connection Machine CM-2 =-=[34]-=-. The approach taken was that of attributing a single processing unit to each ant [2]. Unfortunately, experimental results showed that communication overhead can be a major problem with this approach ... |

373 | Ant algorithms for discrete optimization
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Citation Context ... types of problems, ranging from the classical traveling salesman problem, to routing in telecommunications networks. In this section we will focus on the ant colony optimization (ACO) meta-heuristic =-=[18]-=-, which defines a particular class of ant algorithms, called in the following ACO algorithms. ACO algorithms have been inspired by the following experience run by Goss et al. [31] using a colony of re... |

357 |
Dynamic programming and optimal control
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Citation Context ...in general, it is important to note that they are an interesting approach only for those shortest path problems to which more classical algorithms like dynamic programming or label correcting methods =-=[1]-=- cannot be efficiently applied. This is the case, for example, for the following types of shortest path problems: • NP-hard problems, for which the dimension of the full state-space graph is exponenti... |

332 |
The traveling salesman problem
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Citation Context ...e attacked by these methods (see [16, 21, 22]). The TSP was chosen for many reasons: (i) it is a problem to which the ant colony metaphor is easily adapted, (ii) it is one of the most studied NP-hard =-=[37, 43]-=- problems in combinatorial optimization, and (iii) it is very easily explained, so that the algorithm behavior is not obscured by too many technicalities. The traveling salesman problem, using the ter... |

288 |
The traveling salesman problem: A case study
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- 1997
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Citation Context ...at obtainable by much more sophisticated methods. More research will be necessary to assess whether ACO algorithms can reach the performance of state-of-the-art algorithms like Iterated Lin-Kernighan =-=[35]-=-. • An ACO algorithm called AntNet [13, 15] outperformed a number of state-of-the-art routing algorithms for packet-switching networks on a set of benchmark problems. Very interesting results have bee... |

282 | AntNet: Distributed stigmergetic control for communications networks
- Caro, Dorigo
- 1998
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Citation Context ...k illustrate further applications of the ACO metaheuristic to NP-hard combinatorial optimization problems, while further and more detailed examples of applications to adaptive routing can be found in =-=[13, 15, 45, 53]-=-. 2.4 ACO for the traveling salesman problem 2.4.1 The traveling salesman problem The traveling salesman problem plays an important role in ant colony optimization because it was the first problem to ... |

279 |
Computer solutions of the traveling salesman problem
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Citation Context ...are performed. The triggering of pheromone evaporation happens after all ants have completed their tours. Of course, it would be easy to add a local optimization daemon action, like a 3-opt procedure =-=[38]-=-; this has been done in most of the ACO algorithms for TSP that have developed after AS (see for example [20, 50]). The amount of pheromone trail τij(t) maintained on connection lij is intended to rep... |

192 | Ant colonies for the traveling salesman problem, BioSystems
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Citation Context ...lly ordered. Problem name Authors Year Main references Algorithm name Traveling salesman Dorigo, Maniezzo & Colorni 1991 [16, 21, 22] AS Gambardella & Dorigo 1995 [23] Ant-Q Dorigo & Gambardella 1996 =-=[19, 20, 24]-=- ACS & ACS-3-opt Stützle & Hoos 1997 [48, 49] MMAS Bullnheimer, Hartl & Strauss 1997 [6] ASrank Quadratic assignment Maniezzo, Colorni & Dorigo 1994 [41] AS-QAP Gambardella, Taillard & Dorigo 1997 [27... |

190 |
La reconstruction du nid et les coordinations interindividuelles chez bellicositermes natalensis et cubitermes sp. La théorie de la stigmergie: essai d’interprétation du comportement des termites constructeurs
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Citation Context ...t path selection behavior can be explained in terms of autocatalysis (positive feedback) and differential path length, and it is made possible by an indirect form of communication, known as stigmergy =-=[32]-=-, mediated by local modifications of the environment. In fact, Argentine ants, while going from the nest to the food source and vice versa, deposit a chemical substance, called pheromone, on the groun... |

177 | Antbased load balancing in telecommunications networks
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Citation Context ...k illustrate further applications of the ACO metaheuristic to NP-hard combinatorial optimization problems, while further and more detailed examples of applications to adaptive routing can be found in =-=[13, 15, 45, 53]-=-. 2.4 ACO for the traveling salesman problem 2.4.1 The traveling salesman problem The traveling salesman problem plays an important role in ant colony optimization because it was the first problem to ... |

141 | The ant system applied to the quadratic assignment problem
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Citation Context ... & Strauss 1997 [6] ASrank Quadratic assignment Maniezzo, Colorni & Dorigo 1994 [41] AS-QAP Gambardella, Taillard & Dorigo 1997 [27] HAS-QAPa Stützle & Hoos 1998 [50] MMAS-QAP Maniezzo & Colorni 1998 =-=[40]-=- AS-QAPb Maniezzo 1998 [39] ANTS-QAP Vehicle routing Bullnheimer, Hartl & Strauss 1996 [9, 5, 7] AS-VRP Gambardella, Taillard & Agazzi 1999 [26] HAS-VRP Connection-oriented network routing Schoonderwo... |

127 | Positive feedback as a search strategy
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Citation Context ...an problem 2.4.1 The traveling salesman problem The traveling salesman problem plays an important role in ant colony optimization because it was the first problem to be attacked by these methods (see =-=[16, 21, 22]-=-). The TSP was chosen for many reasons: (i) it is a problem to which the ant colony metaphor is easily adapted, (ii) it is one of the most studied NP-hard [37, 43] problems in combinatorial optimizati... |

124 |
Ant can colour graphs
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Citation Context ...ular ants Heusse, Guérin, Snyers & Kuntz 1998 [33] CAF van der Put & Rothkrantz 1998 [53, 54] ABC-backward Sequential ordering Gambardella & Dorigo 1997 [25] HAS-SOP Graph coloring Costa & Hertz 1997 =-=[10]-=- ANTCOL Shortest common Michel & Middendorf 1998 [42] AS-SCS supersequence a HAS-QAP is an ant algorithm which does not follow all the aspects of the ACO meta-heuristic. b This is a variant of the ori... |

119 | Antnet: A mobile agents approach to adaptive routing - Caro, Dorigo - 1997 |

105 | Ant-Q: A reinforcement learning approach to the traveling salesman problem
- Gambardella, Dorigo
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Citation Context ...ation by application and chronologically ordered. Problem name Authors Year Main references Algorithm name Traveling salesman Dorigo, Maniezzo & Colorni 1991 [16, 21, 22] AS Gambardella & Dorigo 1995 =-=[23]-=- Ant-Q Dorigo & Gambardella 1996 [19, 20, 24] ACS & ACS-3-opt Stützle & Hoos 1997 [48, 49] MMAS Bullnheimer, Hartl & Strauss 1997 [6] ASrank Quadratic assignment Maniezzo, Colorni & Dorigo 1994 [41] A... |

104 | The MAX –MIN ant system and local search for the traveling salesman problem
- Stützle, Hoos
- 1997
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Citation Context ...gorithm, as it is the case with ACO algorithms, is randomized. Stützle [47] presents computational results for the execution of parallel independent runs on up to ten processors of his MMAS algorithm =-=[48, 49]-=-. His results show that the performance of MMAS improves with the number of processors. 2.7 Ants, pheromones, and solutions evaluation In this section we discuss some of the most characterizing aspect... |

103 | An improved ant system algorithm for the vehicle routing problem
- Bullnheimer, Hartl, et al.
- 1997
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Citation Context ... Gambardella, Taillard & Dorigo 1997 [27] HAS-QAPa Stützle & Hoos 1998 [50] MMAS-QAP Maniezzo & Colorni 1998 [40] AS-QAPb Maniezzo 1998 [39] ANTS-QAP Vehicle routing Bullnheimer, Hartl & Strauss 1996 =-=[9, 5, 7]-=- AS-VRP Gambardella, Taillard & Agazzi 1999 [26] HAS-VRP Connection-oriented network routing Schoonderwoerd, Holland, Bruten & Rothkrantz 1996 [45, 44] ABC White, Pagurek & Oppacher 1998 [55] ASGA Di ... |

100 |
Ant-like agents for load balancing in telecommunication networks
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Citation Context ...hicle routing Bullnheimer, Hartl & Strauss 1996 [9, 5, 7] AS-VRP Gambardella, Taillard & Agazzi 1999 [26] HAS-VRP Connection-oriented network routing Schoonderwoerd, Holland, Bruten & Rothkrantz 1996 =-=[45, 44]-=- ABC White, Pagurek & Oppacher 1998 [55] ASGA Di Caro & Dorigo 1998 [14] AntNet-FS Bonabeau, Henaux, Guérin, Snyers, Kuntz & Théraulaz 1998 [4] ABC-smart ants Connection-less Di Caro & Dorigo 1997 [12... |

82 | Ants and reinforcement learning: A case study in routing in dynamic networks
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Citation Context ...-FS Bonabeau, Henaux, Guérin, Snyers, Kuntz & Théraulaz 1998 [4] ABC-smart ants Connection-less Di Caro & Dorigo 1997 [12, 13, 15] AntNet & AntNet-FA network routing Subramanian, Druschel & Chen 1997 =-=[52]-=- Regular ants Heusse, Guérin, Snyers & Kuntz 1998 [33] CAF van der Put & Rothkrantz 1998 [53, 54] ABC-backward Sequential ordering Gambardella & Dorigo 1997 [25] HAS-SOP Graph coloring Costa & Hertz 1... |

80 |
Optimization, Learning and Natural Algorithms (in Italian
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Citation Context ...an problem 2.4.1 The traveling salesman problem The traveling salesman problem plays an important role in ant colony optimization because it was the first problem to be attacked by these methods (see =-=[16, 21, 22]-=-). The TSP was chosen for many reasons: (i) it is a problem to which the ant colony metaphor is easily adapted, (ii) it is one of the most studied NP-hard [37, 43] problems in combinatorial optimizati... |

78 | Solving symmetric and asymmetric TSPs by ant colonies
- Gambardella, Dorigo
- 1996
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Citation Context ...lly ordered. Problem name Authors Year Main references Algorithm name Traveling salesman Dorigo, Maniezzo & Colorni 1991 [16, 21, 22] AS Gambardella & Dorigo 1995 [23] Ant-Q Dorigo & Gambardella 1996 =-=[19, 20, 24]-=- ACS & ACS-3-opt Stützle & Hoos 1997 [48, 49] MMAS Bullnheimer, Hartl & Strauss 1997 [6] ASrank Quadratic assignment Maniezzo, Colorni & Dorigo 1994 [41] AS-QAP Gambardella, Taillard & Dorigo 1997 [27... |

76 | Applying the ant system to the vehicle routing problem
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Citation Context ... Gambardella, Taillard & Dorigo 1997 [27] HAS-QAPa Stützle & Hoos 1998 [50] MMAS-QAP Maniezzo & Colorni 1998 [40] AS-QAPb Maniezzo 1998 [39] ANTS-QAP Vehicle routing Bullnheimer, Hartl & Strauss 1996 =-=[9, 5, 7]-=- AS-VRP Gambardella, Taillard & Agazzi 1999 [26] HAS-VRP Connection-oriented network routing Schoonderwoerd, Holland, Bruten & Rothkrantz 1996 [45, 44] ABC White, Pagurek & Oppacher 1998 [55] ASGA Di ... |

61 |
Local search algorithms for combinatorial problems - analysis, algorithms and new applications
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Citation Context ...stics like evolutionary computation or simulated annealing. Also, when adding to ACO algorithms rather unsophisticated local search procedures based on 3-opt [38], the quality of the results obtained =-=[20, 46, 50]-=- is close to that obtainable by much more sophisticated methods. More research will be necessary to assess whether ACO algorithms can reach the performance of state-of-the-art algorithms like Iterated... |

55 | Ant colonies for the QAP
- Gambardella, Taillard, et al.
- 1999
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Citation Context ...24] ACS & ACS-3-opt Stützle & Hoos 1997 [48, 49] MMAS Bullnheimer, Hartl & Strauss 1997 [6] ASrank Quadratic assignment Maniezzo, Colorni & Dorigo 1994 [41] AS-QAP Gambardella, Taillard & Dorigo 1997 =-=[27]-=- HAS-QAPa Stützle & Hoos 1998 [50] MMAS-QAP Maniezzo & Colorni 1998 [40] AS-QAPb Maniezzo 1998 [39] ANTS-QAP Vehicle routing Bullnheimer, Hartl & Strauss 1996 [9, 5, 7] AS-VRP Gambardella, Taillard & ... |

55 | Adaptive agent-driven routing and load balancing in communication networks
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Citation Context ...z 1998 [4] ABC-smart ants Connection-less Di Caro & Dorigo 1997 [12, 13, 15] AntNet & AntNet-FA network routing Subramanian, Druschel & Chen 1997 [52] Regular ants Heusse, Guérin, Snyers & Kuntz 1998 =-=[33]-=- CAF van der Put & Rothkrantz 1998 [53, 54] ABC-backward Sequential ordering Gambardella & Dorigo 1997 [25] HAS-SOP Graph coloring Costa & Hertz 1997 [10] ANTCOL Shortest common Michel & Middendorf 19... |

54 | Exact and approximate nondeterministic treesearch procedures for the quadratic assignment problem, CSR 98-1, Scienze dell'Informazione, Universitá di
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Citation Context ...Quadratic assignment Maniezzo, Colorni & Dorigo 1994 [41] AS-QAP Gambardella, Taillard & Dorigo 1997 [27] HAS-QAPa Stützle & Hoos 1998 [50] MMAS-QAP Maniezzo & Colorni 1998 [40] AS-QAPb Maniezzo 1998 =-=[39]-=- ANTS-QAP Vehicle routing Bullnheimer, Hartl & Strauss 1996 [9, 5, 7] AS-VRP Gambardella, Taillard & Agazzi 1999 [26] HAS-VRP Connection-oriented network routing Schoonderwoerd, Holland, Bruten & Roth... |

51 | Routing in telecommunications networks with ‘‘Smart’’ ant-like agents (Working paper 98-01-003). Santa Fe, A Comprehensive Overview of the Applications of Artificial LifeK.-J. Kim and S.-B. ChoNM: Santa Fe Institute
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Citation Context ...g Schoonderwoerd, Holland, Bruten & Rothkrantz 1996 [45, 44] ABC White, Pagurek & Oppacher 1998 [55] ASGA Di Caro & Dorigo 1998 [14] AntNet-FS Bonabeau, Henaux, Guérin, Snyers, Kuntz & Théraulaz 1998 =-=[4]-=- ABC-smart ants Connection-less Di Caro & Dorigo 1997 [12, 13, 15] AntNet & AntNet-FA network routing Subramanian, Druschel & Chen 1997 [52] Regular ants Heusse, Guérin, Snyers & Kuntz 1998 [33] CAF v... |

51 | ACO algorithms for the traveling salesman problem
- Stützle, Dorigo
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(Show Context)
Citation Context ...e added giving them a very high length. 8In the following we will present Ant System, a paradigmatic example of how ACO algorithms can be applied to the TSP. Extensions of Ant System can be found in =-=[6, 20, 48]-=-. 2.4.2 Ant System for the TSP Ant System (AS), which was the first (1991) [16, 21] ACO algorithm, was designed as a set of three ant algorithms differing for the way the pheromone trail was updated b... |

50 | Improvements on the ant system: Introducing MAX – MIN ant system
- Stützle, Hoos
- 1997
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...course, it would be easy to add a local optimization daemon action, like a 3-opt procedure [38]; this has been done in most of the ACO algorithms for TSP that have developed after AS (see for example =-=[20, 50]-=-). The amount of pheromone trail τij(t) maintained on connection lij is intended to represent the learned desirability of choosing city j when in city i (which also corresponds to the desirability tha... |

49 |
A new rank-based version of the ant system: A computational study
- Bullnheimer, Hartl, et al.
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Citation Context ...e added giving them a very high length. 8In the following we will present Ant System, a paradigmatic example of how ACO algorithms can be applied to the TSP. Extensions of Ant System can be found in =-=[6, 20, 48]-=-. 2.4.2 Ant System for the TSP Ant System (AS), which was the first (1991) [16, 21] ACO algorithm, was designed as a set of three ant algorithms differing for the way the pheromone trail was updated b... |

48 | HAS-SOP: An hybrid ant system for the sequential ordering problem - Gambardella, Dorigo - 1997 |

42 |
From Natural to Artificial Swarm Intelligence
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- 1999
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Citation Context ...ch single agent, called artificial ant or ant for short in the following, is inspired by the behavior of real ants. Ant algorithms are one of the most successful examples of swarm intelligent systems =-=[3]-=-, and have been applied to many types of problems, ranging from the classical traveling salesman problem, to routing in telecommunications networks. In this section we will focus on the ant colony opt... |

41 | Two ant colony algorithms for best-effort routing in datagram networks
- Caro, Dorigo
- 1998
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...k illustrate further applications of the ACO metaheuristic to NP-hard combinatorial optimization problems, while further and more detailed examples of applications to adaptive routing can be found in =-=[13, 15, 45, 53]-=-. 2.4 ACO for the traveling salesman problem 2.4.1 The traveling salesman problem The traveling salesman problem plays an important role in ant colony optimization because it was the first problem to ... |

31 |
Parallelization strategies for the ant system
- Bullnheimer, Kotsis, et al.
- 1997
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... with this approach was nearly linear with the number of processors and this behavior was shown to be rather stable for increasing problem dimensions. • More recently, Bullnheimer, Kotsis and Strauss =-=[8]-=- proposed two coarse grained parallel versions of AS called Synchronous Parallel Implementation (SPI) and Partially Asynchronous Parallel Implementation (PAPI). SPI is basically the same as the one im... |

31 | Parallelization strategies for ant colony optimization
- Stützle
- 1998
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...pendent runs is the easiest way to obtain a parallel algorithm and, obviously, it is a reasonable approach when the underlying algorithm, as it is the case with ACO algorithms, is randomized. Stützle =-=[47]-=- presents computational results for the execution of parallel independent runs on up to ten processors of his MMAS algorithm [48, 49]. His results show that the performance of MMAS improves with the n... |

30 | Ant algorithms for distributed discrete optimization - Dorigo, Caro, et al. - 1999 |

23 | Connection management using adaptive mobile agents
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- 1998
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Citation Context ...996 [9, 5, 7] AS-VRP Gambardella, Taillard & Agazzi 1999 [26] HAS-VRP Connection-oriented network routing Schoonderwoerd, Holland, Bruten & Rothkrantz 1996 [45, 44] ABC White, Pagurek & Oppacher 1998 =-=[55]-=- ASGA Di Caro & Dorigo 1998 [14] AntNet-FS Bonabeau, Henaux, Guérin, Snyers, Kuntz & Théraulaz 1998 [4] ABC-smart ants Connection-less Di Caro & Dorigo 1997 [12, 13, 15] AntNet & AntNet-FA network rou... |

22 |
An island model based ant system with lookahead for the shortest supersequence problem
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Citation Context ...F van der Put & Rothkrantz 1998 [53, 54] ABC-backward Sequential ordering Gambardella & Dorigo 1997 [25] HAS-SOP Graph coloring Costa & Hertz 1997 [10] ANTCOL Shortest common Michel & Middendorf 1998 =-=[42]-=- AS-SCS supersequence a HAS-QAP is an ant algorithm which does not follow all the aspects of the ACO meta-heuristic. b This is a variant of the original AS-QAP. supersequence problem. Although these p... |

21 |
The Traveling Salesman Problem: Computational Solutions for TSP Applications
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Citation Context ...e attacked by these methods (see [16, 21, 22]). The TSP was chosen for many reasons: (i) it is a problem to which the ant colony metaphor is easily adapted, (ii) it is one of the most studied NP-hard =-=[37, 43]-=- problems in combinatorial optimization, and (iii) it is very easily explained, so that the algorithm behavior is not obscured by too many technicalities. The traveling salesman problem, using the ter... |

18 | Routing in Telecommunications Networks with "Smart" Ant-Like Agents. Santa Fe Institute - Bonabeau, Henaux, et al. - 1998 |

14 |
Parallelizzazione di un algoritmo per la risoluzione del problema del commesso viaggiatore. Master’s thesis, Dipartimento di Elettronica e Informazione, Politecnico di
- Bolondi, Bondanza
- 1993
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Citation Context ...ns of an ACO algorithm was Bolondi and Bondanza’s implementation of AS for the TSP on the Connection Machine CM-2 [34]. The approach taken was that of attributing a single processing unit to each ant =-=[2]-=-. Unfortunately, experimental results showed that communication overhead can be a major problem with this approach on fine grained parallel machines, since ants spend most of their time communicating ... |

11 |
Extending AntNet for best-effort Quality-ofService routing. Unpublished presentation at ANTS’98
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Citation Context ..., Taillard & Agazzi 1999 [26] HAS-VRP Connection-oriented network routing Schoonderwoerd, Holland, Bruten & Rothkrantz 1996 [45, 44] ABC White, Pagurek & Oppacher 1998 [55] ASGA Di Caro & Dorigo 1998 =-=[14]-=- AntNet-FS Bonabeau, Henaux, Guérin, Snyers, Kuntz & Théraulaz 1998 [4] ABC-smart ants Connection-less Di Caro & Dorigo 1997 [12, 13, 15] AntNet & AntNet-FA network routing Subramanian, Druschel & Che... |

9 |
Ant system and local search for combinatorial optimization problems
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Citation Context ...available. The next chapter of this book presents an overview of the available ACO algorithms for the QAP. • Results obtained by the application of ACO algorithms to the TSP are very encouraging (see =-=[51]-=- for an overview of applications of ACO algorithms to the TSP): they are often better than those obtained using other general purpouse heuristics like evolutionary computation or simulated annealing. ... |

8 |
Studies on a parallel ant system for the BSP model. Unpublished manuscript
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(Show Context)
Citation Context ...f pheromone trail information that should be exchanged between the NC subcolonies and how 15this information should be used to update the subcolony’s trail information. Krüger, Merkle and Middendorf =-=[36]-=- considered: (i) the exchange of the global best solution: every subcolony uses the global best solution to choose where to add pheromone trail; (ii) the exchange of the local best solutions: every su... |

7 |
Parallel ant system: An experimental study. Unpublished manuscript
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(Show Context)
Citation Context ..., the algorithm’s performance was not impressive and scaled up very badly when increasing the problem dimensions. • Better results were obtained on a coarse grained parallel network of 16 transputers =-=[2, 17]-=-. In this implementation, Bolondi and Bondanza divided the colony in NC subcolonies, where NC was set to be the same as the number of available processors. Each subcolony acted as a complete colony an... |

7 | der Put. Routing in the faxfactory using mobile agents - van - 1998 |

6 |
Routing in packet switched networks using agents. Simulation Practice and Theory
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Citation Context ...ss Di Caro & Dorigo 1997 [12, 13, 15] AntNet & AntNet-FA network routing Subramanian, Druschel & Chen 1997 [52] Regular ants Heusse, Guérin, Snyers & Kuntz 1998 [33] CAF van der Put & Rothkrantz 1998 =-=[53, 54]-=- ABC-backward Sequential ordering Gambardella & Dorigo 1997 [25] HAS-SOP Graph coloring Costa & Hertz 1997 [10] ANTCOL Shortest common Michel & Middendorf 1998 [42] AS-SCS supersequence a HAS-QAP is a... |