## Planning based on dynamic epistemic logic

Citations: | 3 - 0 self |

### BibTeX

@MISC{Löwe_planningbased,

author = {Benedikt Löwe and Eric Pacuit and Andreas Witzel},

title = {Planning based on dynamic epistemic logic},

year = {}

}

### OpenURL

### Abstract

In recent years, logicians have become increasingly interested in the interplay of several agents, especially in dynamic settings of epistemic and doxastic nature. Fruitful technical advances have led to deep insights into the epistemic nature of interaction by logicians, and this new direction of logic has quickly gained

### Citations

2639 | Model Checking
- Clarke, Grumberg, et al.
- 1999
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...models) and identify natural and general classes of actions that allow arguments such as our crucial Proposition 4 in § 3. – Find compact representations of models (cf. techniques from model checking =-=[5]-=-) on which the product operation can operate directly. Finally there is the large and mature field of “classic” planning with many effective and proven optimization strategies and other techniques. So... |

1567 |
Reasoning about Knowledge
- Fagin, JY, et al.
- 1995
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... and close the paper with a few pointers to future work in § 5. 2 Dynamic Epistemic Logic Epistemic logic proved to be a powerful tool for studying distributed algorithms and multi-agent systems (cf. =-=[7, 13]-=-). Much of the current research on epistemic logic focuses not only on developing logics for reasoning about the knowledge and beliefs of interacting rational agents, but also the dynamics of informat... |

249 | The logic of public announcements, common knowledge and private suspicions
- Baltag, Moss, et al.
- 1998
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ational agents, but also the dynamics of information and beliefs (cf. [19] for an account of this perspective). In this section, we give an overview of product updates due to Baltag, Moss and Solecki =-=[3]-=- for the non-expert reader, following closely the textbook [25] (where the reader can find more details). Let A be a finite set of agents and At a set of atomic propositions. An epistemic model is a t... |

94 |
Planning as model checking
- Giunchiglia, Traverso
- 1999
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...st cognate to our proposal is the work by van der Hoek and Wooldridge [23] on planning with epistemic goals, based on the idea of Giunchilia and Traverso to use model checking as a planning algorithm =-=[9]-=-. Their planning algorithm is based on S5 ATEL (for more on embedding DEL into temporal logics, cf. § 2), using a similar model as we did in [10]; we argue here that DEL provides a more flexible frame... |

90 | Logics of communication and change
- Benthem, Eijck, et al.
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...es is defined as M, w |= 〈E, e〉ϕ iff M, w |= pre(e) and M ⊗ E, (w, e) |= ϕ. Given a pointed model (M, w) and a formula ϕ ∈ LA, checking M, w |= ϕ can be done in time polynomial in the size of M and ϕ =-=[22]-=-. Some care must be taken with respect to the product update, as at first glance it can potentially lead to exponentially growing models (cf. § 3.3). Given that DEL is about dynamics, i.e., the change... |

71 |
Knowledge Games
- Ditmarsch
- 2000
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...-assessment of the role of logic for artificial intelligence. The complete formalization of concrete games in which knowledge and belief play a crucial role (called “knowledge games” by van Ditmarsch =-=[24]-=-) in terms of dynamic epistemic logic has been hailed as a great success. Van Eijck’s software DEMO [26] renders this theoretical success into a useful tool. The first and second author have proposed ... |

70 | Tractable multiagent planning for epistemic goals
- Hoek, Wooldridge
- 2002
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...t model checking. Our scenario used in this paper has non-simple (though propositional) actions, and uses non-S5 models. The closest cognate to our proposal is the work by van der Hoek and Wooldridge =-=[23]-=- on planning with epistemic goals, based on the idea of Giunchilia and Traverso to use model checking as a planning algorithm [9]. Their planning algorithm is based on S5 ATEL (for more on embedding D... |

65 | One is a lonely number’: on the logic of communication
- Benthem
- 2002
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...t research on epistemic logic focuses not only on developing logics for reasoning about the knowledge and beliefs of interacting rational agents, but also the dynamics of information and beliefs (cf. =-=[19]-=- for an account of this perspective). In this section, we give an overview of product updates due to Baltag, Moss and Solecki [3] for the non-expert reader, following closely the textbook [25] (where ... |

55 |
Dynamic Epistemic Logic, volume 337 of Synthese Library Series
- Ditmarsch, Hoek, et al.
- 2007
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...cement to make in a strategic setting with goals (assuming truthfulness). Outline of this paper In § 2 we shall give a standard introduction to dynamic epistemic logic, following roughly the textbook =-=[25]-=-. At the end of the section, we stress that DEL is not a temporal logic and comment on possible embeddings of DEL in temporal settings. In § 3, we return to the setting of the doxastically enriched co... |

54 | Dynamic logic of preference upgrade
- Benthem, Liu
- 2007
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...o some extent try to anticipate them. However, while there exists work in the context of DEL on defining the information content of events in strategic settings [8] and modeling goals and preferences =-=[21]-=-, things are far less clear in such a case, and we therefore leave it to future work. 5 Discussion and Future Work We gave the our discussion of §§ 3 and 4 in the framework of DEL. Of course, the most... |

41 | Merging frameworks for interaction
- Benthem, Gerbrandy, et al.
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...slight surprise that DEL is not a temporal language, i.e., has no means of expressing temporal relations. In order to have temporal relations, one can embed DEL into an appropriate temporal logic. In =-=[20]-=-, the authors give a natural embedding of DEL into ETL. Since the details of temporal logic do not matter for our purposes, we think of the temporal setting as follows: Fix a pointed epistemic model (... |

39 |
A qualitative theory of dynamic interactive belief revision
- Baltag, Smets
- 2008
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...s and then maintains the agents’ mental models throughout state of the world possible. For a more graceful handling and revising of inconsistent beliefs, we could use dynamic doxastic logic (DDL, cf. =-=[4]-=-). Since DEL works for the simple examples in this paper, we ignore these issues for the present discussion.6 B. Löwe, E. Pacuit, A. Witzel the progress of the game or scene, much like a physics engi... |

34 | 2006 From Linear Story Generation to Branching Story Graphs
- Riedl, Young
- 2006
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...es DEL a promising framework for knowledge- or belief-based parts of computer games. Making planning into a crucial element of narrative design for computer games has been proposed by Riedl and Young =-=[15, 16]-=-. Combining these aspects, we here propose to study a general framework of DEL planning. The classic planning problem consists of a description of the world, the agent’s goal and a description of the ... |

32 | A Fast Bisimulation Algorithm
- Dovier, Piazza, et al.
- 2001
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...these two events. Due to symmetry we are left with 6 cases to check: σ ∈ {Nt, Bt, NtBt, NtBg, BtBg, NtBtBg}. ⊓⊔ Together with the fact that the bisimulation contraction can be computed in linear time =-=[6]-=-, this shows that our toy model indeed stays a toy model. As mentioned above, this may not say much about more realistic models, but guarantees may be found there with similar techniques. We can also ... |

12 | Action emulation
- Eijck, Ruan
- 2004
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...r pointed models are equivalent in the sense that they satisfy exactly the same formulas. For any model M and events E, E ′, if E � E ′ then M ⊗ E � M ⊗ E ′ (note that the converse does not hold, see =-=[27]-=-). For each model M, the union of all bisimulations of M with itself is again a bisimulation. The quotient structure of this bisimulation gives us the most compact model satisfying the same formulas, ... |

9 | Communication strategies in games
- Gerbrandy
- 2005
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...of third agents into account, and may to some extent try to anticipate them. However, while there exists work in the context of DEL on defining the information content of events in strategic settings =-=[8]-=- and modeling goals and preferences [21], things are far less clear in such a case, and we therefore leave it to future work. 5 Discussion and Future Work We gave the our discussion of §§ 3 and 4 in t... |

8 |
Perspectives on Belief and Change
- Aucher
- 2008
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...tual computer game. Note that, while we focus on maintaining one central epistemic model as part of the simulation engine, such a model can also be distributed and maintained by the individual agents =-=[2]-=-. We want to emphasize that this is merely a toy example, and while there is no claim to scalability we do want to point out some initial issues and possible approaches to handling them. 3.1 Thief: Th... |

8 | An abstract approach to reasoning about games with mistaken and changing beliefs - Löwe, Pacuit |

6 |
Identifying the structure of a narrative via an agent-based logic of preferences and beliefs: Formalizations of episodes from CSI
- Löwe, Pacuit, et al.
- 2009
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ijck’s software DEMO [26] renders this theoretical success into a useful tool. The first and second author have proposed to use formalisms based on epistemic logic for the formalization of narratives =-=[11, 12]-=-, and the third author (in collaboration with Kennerly and Zvesper; [28, 10]) has formulated a simple knowledge-based action situation from a computer game. We formalize this (toy) example using dynam... |

3 |
Explicit knowledge programming for computer games
- Witzel, Zvesper, et al.
- 2008
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...l. The first and second author have proposed to use formalisms based on epistemic logic for the formalization of narratives [11, 12], and the third author (in collaboration with Kennerly and Zvesper; =-=[28, 10]-=-) has formulated a simple knowledge-based action situation from a computer game. We formalize this (toy) example using dynamic epistemic logic (DEL) and explain the underlying planning problem, motiva... |

2 |
Ditmarsch. What will they say?—Public announcement games, 2009. Paper presented at
- ˚Agotnes, van
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ding DEL into temporal logics, cf. § 2), using a similar model as we did in [10]; we argue here that DEL provides a more flexible framework. Related to the idea of using DEL for planning is the paper =-=[1]-=- on public announcement logic which examines which public announcement to make in a strategic setting with goals (assuming truthfulness). Outline of this paper In § 2 we shall give a standard introduc... |

2 |
Thief belief
- Kennerly, Witzel, et al.
- 2009
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...l. The first and second author have proposed to use formalisms based on epistemic logic for the formalization of narratives [11, 12], and the third author (in collaboration with Kennerly and Zvesper; =-=[28, 10]-=-) has formulated a simple knowledge-based action situation from a computer game. We formalize this (toy) example using dynamic epistemic logic (DEL) and explain the underlying planning problem, motiva... |

2 |
Renardel de Lavalette and H. van Ditmarsch. Epistemic actions and minimal models, 2002. Available on the authors’ websites
- R
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...mic epistemic logic. The DEMO software of Jan van Eijck [26] makes this very concrete; it has been used, e.g., for the Russian Card problem in [17, chapter 6]. Renardel de Lavalette and van Ditmarsch =-=[14]-=- discuss updating and maintaining a minimal epistemic model and identifying subclasses of DEL for which2 B. Löwe, E. Pacuit, A. Witzel that is possible. They provide model minimization for so-called ... |

2 |
Character-focused narrative planning. Unpublished manuscript, 2003. planning and some tractable cases 13
- Riedl, Young
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...es DEL a promising framework for knowledge- or belief-based parts of computer games. Making planning into a crucial element of narrative design for computer games has been proposed by Riedl and Young =-=[15, 16]-=-. Combining these aspects, we here propose to study a general framework of DEL planning. The classic planning problem consists of a description of the world, the agent’s goal and a description of the ... |

1 | Reasoning about Time, Action and Knowledge in Multi-Agent Systems - Ruan - 2008 |

1 |
Exploring the iterated update universe, 2006. ILLC Publications PP2006-26. based on dynamic epistemic logic 15
- Sadzik
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...nd even if it is finite, it can be very large. Therefore, two crucial topics for further research will be the following: – Examine the long-term expansion of models under iterated updates (related to =-=[18]-=-, but we are foremost interested in finite models) and identify natural and general classes of actions that allow arguments such as our crucial Proposition 4 in § 3. – Find compact representations of ... |

1 |
Eijck. DEMO—a demo of epistemic modelling
- van
- 2007
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...es in which knowledge and belief play a crucial role (called “knowledge games” by van Ditmarsch [24]) in terms of dynamic epistemic logic has been hailed as a great success. Van Eijck’s software DEMO =-=[26]-=- renders this theoretical success into a useful tool. The first and second author have proposed to use formalisms based on epistemic logic for the formalization of narratives [11, 12], and the third a... |