## Parsing Natural Language using Guided Local Search (2002)

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Venue: | Proc. 15th European Conference on Artificial Intelligence |

Citations: | 6 - 5 self |

### BibTeX

@INPROCEEDINGS{Daum02parsingnatural,

author = {Michael Daum and Wolfgang Menzel},

title = {Parsing Natural Language using Guided Local Search},

booktitle = {Proc. 15th European Conference on Artificial Intelligence},

year = {2002},

pages = {435--439},

publisher = {IOS Press}

}

### OpenURL

### Abstract

In this paper an application of guided local search (GLS) to the problem of natural language parsing is presented. The given parsing approach is situated in a constraint based parsing paradigm [10] that allows natural language processing in a robust and resource adaptive way [16]. Some extensions of GLS are introduced, most notably a multi-threaded search where a couple of agents cooperate with each other in parallel, showing synergetic effects. The resulting algorithm is compared to competing techniques within the framework of weighted constraint dependency grammars [21]. An experimental evaluation shows GLS being on par with similar approaches [7].

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Citation Context ...WCDGs so that a finegrained distinction between gramatical and non-grammatical utterances is available. Optimality described by means of constraints is also a central issue in related linguistic work =-=[19, 12, 4]-=-. Nevertheless, advanced natural language processing imposes its own requirements and limits to the applicability of specific parsing techniques, namely realtime performance, anytime properties [1], r... |

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Citation Context ...requirements, and the parsing problem is formulated as a partial constraint satisfaction problem. This allows to apply solution methods like constraint propagation [27], tree search [18], tabu search =-=[8]-=- or genetic methods [5] to mention only some. The work presented here adds the novel but powerful heuristics of guided local search to the canon of solution methods tried so far. Within the WCDG frame... |

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Citation Context ... as a set of possibly contradictory requirements, and the parsing problem is formulated as a partial constraint satisfaction problem. This allows to apply solution methods like constraint propagation =-=[27]-=-, tree search [18], tabu search [8] or genetic methods [5] to mention only some. The work presented here adds the novel but powerful heuristics of guided local search to the canon of solution methods ... |

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Citation Context ...12, 4]. Nevertheless, advanced natural language processing imposes its own requirements and limits to the applicability of specific parsing techniques, namely realtime performance, anytime properties =-=[1]-=-, resource adaptability [15] and bounded incremental parsing. From the perspective of these requirements guided local search exhibits some advantages for natural language parsing: as a transformation ... |

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Citation Context ... sentence mir ware es dann lieber, wenn wir die ganze Sache auf den Mai verschieben. (I would prefer to defer the affair until may.) (7) taken from a german corpus of appointment scheduling dialogues =-=[6]-=-. The two curves in this figure show the costs g and the augmented costs h as a function of time. We can see that those two curves diverge over time while penalty weights are increased. The dots in Fi... |

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Citation Context ... research. 1 Natural Language Systems, Department of Computer Science, University of Hamburg, (michajwolfgang)@nats.informatik.uni-hamburg.de GLS was introduced in [25] as a direct successor of GENET =-=[3]-=-, a neuronal network architecture to solve constraint satisfaction problems (CSPs). Since then it was applied successfully to a series of problems [17, 13, 26]. Adapting the penalty based approach GLS... |

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Citation Context ...WCDGs so that a finegrained distinction between gramatical and non-grammatical utterances is available. Optimality described by means of constraints is also a central issue in related linguistic work =-=[19, 12, 4]-=-. Nevertheless, advanced natural language processing imposes its own requirements and limits to the applicability of specific parsing techniques, namely realtime performance, anytime properties [1], r... |

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Citation Context ...(s) c i 1 + p i (2) and we compute the set of features maximizing this function. 2.2 Dependency parsing using WCDG The application of constraint satisfaction techniques for parsing has its roots in [=-=14]-=- and was later extended in [9]. Given the german sentence ich denke wir treffen uns um zehn. (I think we meet at ten.) (3) we are interested in finding a structural analysis as shown in Figure 2. The ... |

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Citation Context ...WCDGs so that a finegrained distinction between gramatical and non-grammatical utterances is available. Optimality described by means of constraints is also a central issue in related linguistic work =-=[19, 12, 4]-=-. Nevertheless, advanced natural language processing imposes its own requirements and limits to the applicability of specific parsing techniques, namely realtime performance, anytime properties [1], r... |

42 | Guided local search for the vehicle routing problem
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Citation Context ...introduced in [25] as a direct successor of GENET [3], a neuronal network architecture to solve constraint satisfaction problems (CSPs). Since then it was applied successfully to a series of problems =-=[17, 13, 26]-=-. Adapting the penalty based approach GLS offers a method to solve combinatorial optimization problems in general and partial constraint satisfaction problems (PCSPs) in particular. The application of... |

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Citation Context ..., a claim which is subject of future research. 1 Natural Language Systems, Department of Computer Science, University of Hamburg, (michajwolfgang)@nats.informatik.uni-hamburg.de GLS was introduced in =-=[25]-=- as a direct successor of GENET [3], a neuronal network architecture to solve constraint satisfaction problems (CSPs). Since then it was applied successfully to a series of problems [17, 13, 26]. Adap... |

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Citation Context ...bly contradictory requirements, and the parsing problem is formulated as a partial constraint satisfaction problem. This allows to apply solution methods like constraint propagation [27], tree search =-=[18]-=-, tabu search [8] or genetic methods [5] to mention only some. The work presented here adds the novel but powerful heuristics of guided local search to the canon of solution methods tried so far. With... |

31 | Eliminative parsing with graded constraints
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Citation Context ...tract. In this paper an application of guided local search (GLS) to the problem of natural language parsing is presented. The given parsing approach is situated in a constraint based parsing paradigm =-=[10]-=- that allows natural language processing in a robust and resource adaptive way [16]. Some extensions of GLS are introduced, most notably a multi-threaded search where a couple of agents cooperate with... |

24 | Extensions to constraint dependency parsing for spoken language processing, Computer Speech and Language 9
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Citation Context ...mpute the set of features maximizing this function. 2.2 Dependency parsing using WCDG The application of constraint satisfaction techniques for parsing has its roots in [14] and was later extended in =-=[9]-=-. Given the german sentence ich denke wir treffen uns um zehn. (I think we meet at ten.) (3) we are interested in finding a structural analysis as shown in Figure 2. The upper part represents a tradit... |

24 |
and Shlomo Zilberstein. Composing real-time systems
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Citation Context ...s ones like expiration of time (t max ) or the construction of a solution without constraint violations. So we observe the performance profile of the search, that is the quality improvement over time =-=[20]-=-, in order to deduce an appropriate termination criterion. Figure 3 shows the measured performance profile of the sentence mir ware es dann lieber, wenn wir die ganze Sache auf den Mai verschieben. (I... |

19 | Parsing of spoken language under time constraints
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Citation Context ...ced natural language processing imposes its own requirements and limits to the applicability of specific parsing techniques, namely realtime performance, anytime properties [1], resource adaptability =-=[15]-=- and bounded incremental parsing. From the perspective of these requirements guided local search exhibits some advantages for natural language parsing: as a transformation based heuristic it posesses ... |

14 | Modeling dependency grammar with restricted constraints, Traitement Automatique des Langues 41(1
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Citation Context ...structure. Thus the set of constraints C only consists of unary constraints C 1 i and binary constaints C 2 i . The resulting limitation of the expressiveness is payed off by computational advantages =-=[2-=-2]. 3 APPLYING GLS When applying an algorithm design technique like GLS to dependency parsing one has to answer a series of questions: How can dependency structures be transformed into each other? W... |

13 | A transformation-based parsing technique with anytime properties
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Citation Context ...resulting algorithm is compared to competing techniques within the framework of weighted constraint dependency grammars [21]. An experimental evaluation shows GLS being on par with similar approaches =-=[7]-=-. 1 INTRODUCTION In the framework of weighted constraint dependency grammars (WCDG) [21] grammatical knowledge about well-formed utterances and their structural descriptions is given as a set of possi... |

11 | Function Optimization using Guided Local Search
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Citation Context ...introduced in [25] as a direct successor of GENET [3], a neuronal network architecture to solve constraint satisfaction problems (CSPs). Since then it was applied successfully to a series of problems =-=[17, 13, 26]-=-. Adapting the penalty based approach GLS offers a method to solve combinatorial optimization problems in general and partial constraint satisfaction problems (PCSPs) in particular. The application of... |

9 |
An experimental study of the systemic behavior of cooperative search algorithms
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Citation Context ...imilar approach of cooperative computation using tabu search was reported in [2]. A description of systemic behavior, that is the impact of cooperating agents on the optimization process, is given in =-=[24]-=-. 5 EXPERIMENTS In the experiments we used a weighted constraint grammar covering 222 sentences of the Verbmobil corpus [6]. All computations were carried out on a Pentium III 500 Mhz. Preliminary exp... |

8 |
Genetic Algorithms and Simulated
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Citation Context ...arsing problem is formulated as a partial constraint satisfaction problem. This allows to apply solution methods like constraint propagation [27], tree search [18], tabu search [8] or genetic methods =-=[5]-=- to mention only some. The work presented here adds the novel but powerful heuristics of guided local search to the canon of solution methods tried so far. Within the WCDG framework parsing is viewed ... |

7 |
Towards an Evolutionary Method – Cooperative MultiThread Parallel Tabu Search Heuristic Hybrid
- Crainic, Gendreau
- 1999
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Citation Context ... a competitive way of computation. So far, MGLS has only been simulated in a round-robin fashion on a single processor. A similar approach of cooperative computation using tabu search was reported in =-=[2]-=-. A description of systemic behavior, that is the impact of cooperating agents on the optimization process, is given in [24]. 5 EXPERIMENTS In the experiments we used a weighted constraint grammar cov... |

2 |
Error diagnosis in a language tutoring system
- Menzel, Schroder
- 1999
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...natural language parsing is presented. The given parsing approach is situated in a constraint based parsing paradigm [10] that allows natural language processing in a robust and resource adaptive way =-=[16]-=-. Some extensions of GLS are introduced, most notably a multi-threaded search where a couple of agents cooperate with each other in parallel, showing synergetic effects. The resulting algorithm is com... |

1 | Guided local search applied to the SAT problem
- Mills, Tsang
- 1999
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...introduced in [25] as a direct successor of GENET [3], a neuronal network architecture to solve constraint satisfaction problems (CSPs). Since then it was applied successfully to a series of problems =-=[17, 13, 26]-=-. Adapting the penalty based approach GLS offers a method to solve combinatorial optimization problems in general and partial constraint satisfaction problems (PCSPs) in particular. The application of... |

1 |
A Framework for Gradation in Natural Language Analysis Using Constraint Optimization
- Schroder
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...f agents cooperate with each other in parallel, showing synergetic effects. The resulting algorithm is compared to competing techniques within the framework of weighted constraint dependency grammars =-=[21]-=-. An experimental evaluation shows GLS being on par with similar approaches [7]. 1 INTRODUCTION In the framework of weighted constraint dependency grammars (WCDG) [21] grammatical knowledge about well... |

1 |
Parsen naturlicher Sprache mit gesteuerter lokaler Suche
- Schulz
- 2000
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...orial optimization problems in general and partial constraint satisfaction problems (PCSPs) in particular. The application of guided local search to natural language processing was first described in =-=[23]-=-. 2 FOUNDATIONS 2.1 Guided Local Search GLS is a meta-heuristic, like tabu search or simulated annealing, which tries to guide a local search out of local optima while investigating a combinatorial op... |

1 | A Framework for Gradation in Natural Language Analysis Using Constraint Optimization - Schrder - 2002 |