## Symbolic Localization Reduction with Reconstruction Layering and Backtracking (2002)

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Venue: | In Proc. of Conference on Computer-Aided Verification (CAV |

Citations: | 17 - 2 self |

### BibTeX

@INPROCEEDINGS{Barner02symboliclocalization,

author = {Sharon Barner and Daniel Geist and Anna Gringauze},

title = {Symbolic Localization Reduction with Reconstruction Layering and Backtracking},

booktitle = {In Proc. of Conference on Computer-Aided Verification (CAV},

year = {2002},

pages = {65--77},

publisher = {Springer-Verlag}

}

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### Abstract

Localization reduction is an abstraction-refinement scheme for model checking which was introduced by Kurshan [12] as a means for tackling state explosion. It is completely automatic, but despite the work that has been done related to this scheme, it still suffers from computational complexity. In this paper we present algorithmic improvements to localization reduction that enabled us to overcome some of these problems. Namely, we present a new symbolic algorithm for path reconstruction including incremental refinement and backtracking. We have implemented these improvements and compared them to previous work on a large number of our industrial examples. In some cases the improvement was dramatic. Using these improvements we were able to verify circuits that we were not previously able to address.

### Citations

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(Show Context)
Citation Context ...n which contemporary research is tackling the state explosion problem are quite diversified. Structural model reductions are performed, various optimizations are published, and bounded model checking =-=[4] is -=-gaining momentum. Formal verification activity has also somewhat shifted from verification to falsification or as it is popularly called “bug hunting”. This paper concentrates on a method which is... |

597 | Counterexample-Guided Abstraction Refinement
- Clarke, Grumberg, et al.
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...e, the paper is limited to handling of safety properties and noncyclic counterexamples.sA general abstraction method using a counterexample guided refinement was recently proposed by Clarke et al. in =-=[7]-=-. Wang et al. have reported the use of an ATPG solver for reconstruction [19]. Clarke et al. [9] have reported similar work where they used the GRASP [18] SAT solver to perform reconstruction. Gupta a... |

371 | GRASPa search algorithm for propositional satisfiability
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Citation Context ...ment was recently proposed by Clarke et al. in [7]. Wang et al. have reported the use of an ATPG solver for reconstruction [19]. Clarke et al. [9] have reported similar work where they used the GRASP =-=[18]-=- SAT solver to perform reconstruction. Gupta and Clarke have used spectral analysis to perform refinement[11]. The algorithms reported in this paper are implemented using BDDs but some of them can be ... |

71 | The SMV system
- McMillan
- 1992
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...set of state variable V′ ⊆ V that explicitly appear in f (e.g. Support( v1 + 1 + ( v2 ⁄ v5) = 12) = { v1, v2, v5} , Support( v16 < 20) = { v16} ). A model M can be defined by a program written i=-=n SMV [15] and transl-=-ated into a Kripke structure K = ( S, I, R, L) Where S = D1× … × Dn , is a set of states, I⊆S, is a Atoms( M) set of Initial states R ⊆ S× S, is a transition relation and L: S→2 is a labeli... |

64 |
High-density reachability analysis
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(Show Context)
Citation Context ... values of V′′ ⁄ V′ for the current state, or there is no backward step from the current state that intersects with the previous state. Note that we also employ underapproximation by doing sub=-=setting [17]-=- to avoid state explosion. In our experiments, we used subsetting to reduce the BDD size down to 5000 BDD nodes. 4.2.3.3 Reconstruction of a path with a loop To reconstruct an abstract path containing... |

54 |
An iterative approach to language containment
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(Show Context)
Citation Context ...on 2. Note that the localization technique either leaves a variable unchanged or replaces it by a non-deterministic abstraction. A similar approach is described by Balarin and Sangiovanni-Vincentelli =-=[2]-=-. Another refinement technique has been proposed by LindNelson and Andersen [14]. They use under and over-approximation in order to handle all CTL. Their approximation techniques enable them to avoid ... |

37 | M.: Abstraction and counterexample-guided refinement in model checking of hybrid systems
- Clarke, Fehnker, et al.
- 2003
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...l abstraction method using a counterexample guided refinement was recently proposed by Clarke et al. in [7]. Wang et al. have reported the use of an ATPG solver for reconstruction [19]. Clarke et al. =-=[9]-=- have reported similar work where they used the GRASP [18] SAT solver to perform reconstruction. Gupta and Clarke have used spectral analysis to perform refinement[11]. The algorithms reported in this... |

37 | Formal property verification by abstraction refinement with formal, simulation and hybrid engines
- Wang, Ho, et al.
- 2001
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...erexamples.sA general abstraction method using a counterexample guided refinement was recently proposed by Clarke et al. in [7]. Wang et al. have reported the use of an ATPG solver for reconstruction =-=[19]-=-. Clarke et al. [9] have reported similar work where they used the GRASP [18] SAT solver to perform reconstruction. Gupta and Clarke have used spectral analysis to perform refinement[11]. The algorith... |

24 | Tearing Based Automatic Abstraction for CTL Model Checking
- Lee, Pardo, et al.
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... to avoid rechecking the entire model after each refinement step while guaranteeing completeness. There are abstraction-refinement techniques that do not use counterexamples to refine the abstraction =-=[13, 16]-=-. A technique proposed by Govindaraju and Dill [10] uses under approximation techniques and counterexamples to verify the specification. The refinement technique used there is different - it randomly ... |

21 | Incremental CTL Model Checking Using BDD Subsetting
- Pardo, Hachtel
- 1998
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... to avoid rechecking the entire model after each refinement step while guaranteeing completeness. There are abstraction-refinement techniques that do not use counterexamples to refine the abstraction =-=[13, 16]-=-. A technique proposed by Govindaraju and Dill [10] uses under approximation techniques and counterexamples to verify the specification. The refinement technique used there is different - it randomly ... |

17 | Stepwise CTL model checking of state/event systems
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- 1999
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...r replaces it by a non-deterministic abstraction. A similar approach is described by Balarin and Sangiovanni-Vincentelli [2]. Another refinement technique has been proposed by LindNelson and Andersen =-=[14]-=-. They use under and over-approximation in order to handle all CTL. Their approximation techniques enable them to avoid rechecking the entire model after each refinement step while guaranteeing comple... |

14 |
Automata-TheoreticVerification of Coordinating Processes
- Kurshan
- 1993
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...on Barner, Daniel Geist and Anna Gringauze IBM Haifa Research Lab, Haifa Israel Abstract. Localization reduction is an abstraction-refinement scheme for model checking which was introduced by Kurshan =-=[12]-=- as a means for tackling state explosion. It is completely automatic, but despite the work that has been done related to this scheme, it still suffers from computational complexity. In this paper we p... |

13 | Verification by approximate forward and backward reachability
- Govindaraju, Dill
- 1998
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ment step while guaranteeing completeness. There are abstraction-refinement techniques that do not use counterexamples to refine the abstraction [13, 16]. A technique proposed by Govindaraju and Dill =-=[10]-=- uses under approximation techniques and counterexamples to verify the specification. The refinement technique used there is different - it randomly chooses a concrete state corresponding to the first... |

12 |
On-the- model checking of rctl formulas
- Beer, Ben-David, et al.
- 1998
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...imitsof a 32 bit application on the IBM pSereis 640. We run all algorithms using dynamic BDD reordering. In Table 1 we compared 4 algorithms. All of the algorithms performed On-The-Fly model checking =-=[3]: -=-without localization, with Clarke et al.’s algorithm, with Layering and the algorithm in Section 4.2.3.1, and with layering and the algorithm in Section 4.2.3.2. Table 1: Results for safety formulas... |

10 | Multiple state and single state tableaux for combining local and global model checking. In: Olderog E-R, Steffen B (eds) Correct system design, recent insight and advances. Lecture notes in computer science, vol 1710
- Biere, EM, et al.
- 1999
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...extract_loop_trace chooses an arbitrary state from and iteratively performs backward steps from it until some state in is encountered more than once. This is similar S 0 to the algorithm described in =-=[5] by Bier-=-e et al. that proves a tableau construction by showing how a concrete path can be constructed from path with a loop that satisfies the tableau. S 0srefine( Si, Si + 1, M′ , M′′ ) { V′ := varia... |

2 |
Efficient Implentation of a BDD Package
- Brace, Rudell, et al.
- 1990
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ion as an abstraction is intuitive when working with Binary Decision Diagrams (BDDs). Projection of a set can be calculated by existential quantification which is a standard operation of BDD packages =-=[6]. Definition 4 (Path-=- projection) The projection of path π = { s0, s1, …, sk} on a set of variables V′ is a set of paths Π′ = { S0 ′ , S1 ′…S , , k ′ } , where for all i, Si ′ = proj( si, V′ ) . We den... |

1 |
Using fourier analysis for abstraction-refinement in model checking. Private Communication
- Gupta, Clarke
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...econstruction [19]. Clarke et al. [9] have reported similar work where they used the GRASP [18] SAT solver to perform reconstruction. Gupta and Clarke have used spectral analysis to perform refinement=-=[11]-=-. The algorithms reported in this paper are implemented using BDDs but some of them can be implemented otherwise and can be used in conjunction with SAT or ATPG based implementations. The steps of the... |