## A Survey of Models and Design Methods for Self-Organizing Networked Systems

Citations: | 4 - 0 self |

### BibTeX

@MISC{Elmenreich_asurvey,

author = {Wilfried Elmenreich and Christian Bettstetter and Hermann De Meer},

title = {A Survey of Models and Design Methods for Self-Organizing Networked Systems},

year = {}

}

### OpenURL

### Abstract

Self-organization, whereby through purely local interactions, global order and structure emerge, is studied broadly across many fields of science, economics, and engineering. We review several existing methods and modeling techniques used to understand self-organization in a general manner. We then present implementation concepts and case studies for applying these principles for the design and deployment of robust self-organizing networked systems. 1

### Citations

985 | Flocks, herds, and schools: A distributed behavioral model
- Reynolds
- 1987
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...isciplines. A well-known example from nature is the flocking behavior in a school of fish. It is likely that there is no “leader fish,” but each individual fish has knowledge only about its neighbors =-=[3]-=-. Despite (or probably because of) this localized and decentralized operation, the difficult task of forming and maintaining a scalable and highly adaptive shoal can be achieved. With the increasing c... |

479 |
The Complexity of Cooperation: Agent-Based Models of Competition and
- Axelrod
- 1997
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... autonomous agents. Thus, unlike CAs and differential equations, they can model phenomena in social systems and agent based approaches lend themselves readily to incorporating game theoretic policies =-=[17]-=-. Many software platforms and techniques exist for building agent based models and Refs. [18] and [19] provide useful reviews. A major drawback to agent based modeling is the lack of rigor. Due to the... |

408 |
Synchronization, a universal concept in nonlinear science
- Pikovsky
- 2003
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... Most recently, systems of differential equations have been used to model the emergence of synchronization in systems of coupled oscillators ranging from fireflies, to neurons, to Josephson junctions =-=[8, 10, 11]-=-. The Lotka-Volterra model discussed above is another prominent example of this approach. Despite the broad range of applicability, this approach is thus far limited to describing pattern formation, o... |

333 |
Pattern formation outside of equilibrium
- Cross, Hohenberg
- 1993
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...which generate patterns similar to those observed in Rayleigh-Bénard convection, viscous fingering, spiral waves in chemical reactions and a range of additional structures such as stripes and tilings =-=[7, 8]-=-. Many of these patterns are also observed in biological systems, with differential equations providing models of organism growth and differentiation [7, 9]. Ref [8] provides a comprehensive review of... |

255 |
editor Theory and Application of Cellular Automata
- Wolfram
- 1986
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... be found in one of a set of possible discrete states. CAs have been successfully used to model a range of real physical systems from predator-prey systems, to chemical spiral waves, to hydrodynamics =-=[12, 13, 14, 15]-=-. A highly desirable aspect of CAs, absent from differential equations, is that they allow for locality. In other words, sites on the grid interact directly only with neighboring sites, thus, consiste... |

211 |
Cellular Automata Machines
- Toffoli, Margoulis
- 1988
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... be found in one of a set of possible discrete states. CAs have been successfully used to model a range of real physical systems from predator-prey systems, to chemical spiral waves, to hydrodynamics =-=[12, 13, 14, 15]-=-. A highly desirable aspect of CAs, absent from differential equations, is that they allow for locality. In other words, sites on the grid interact directly only with neighboring sites, thus, consiste... |

202 |
Cellular Automata Modeling of Physical Systems
- Chopard, Droz
- 1998
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... be found in one of a set of possible discrete states. CAs have been successfully used to model a range of real physical systems from predator-prey systems, to chemical spiral waves, to hydrodynamics =-=[12, 13, 14, 15]-=-. A highly desirable aspect of CAs, absent from differential equations, is that they allow for locality. In other words, sites on the grid interact directly only with neighboring sites, thus, consiste... |

168 |
Mathematical Games - The fantastic combinations of John Conway's new solitaire game "life". Scientific American 223
- Gardner
- 1970
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ing behaviors such as forming a range of patterns similar to those observed with differential equations and also far more complex dynamics such as moving patterns (“gliders”) in Conway’s Game of Life =-=[16]-=-. Many CAs are computationally universal, i. e., in theory CAs can be used to implement any computation. A fundamental requirement necessary for many (if not most) CAs to exhibit interesting behaviors... |

115 |
Mathematical Biology. I: An Introduction
- Murray
- 2002
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...onal structures such as stripes and tilings [7, 8]. Many of these patterns are also observed in biological systems, with differential equations providing models of organism growth and differentiation =-=[7, 9]-=-. Ref [8] provides a comprehensive review of pattern formation as modeled by reaction-diffusion equations. Most recently, systems of differential equations have been used to model the emergence of syn... |

102 |
Lecons sur la theorie mathematique de la lutte pour la vie, Gau- thiers-Villars
- Volterra
- 1931
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ive describes the (emergent) behavior of the overall system. An example for these two perspectives and their interrelation can be found in the “predatorprey system” as described by Lotka and Volterra =-=[5]-=-. This biologically-inspired model contains two types of animals, typically named “rabbits” (the prey) and “foxes” (the predators). It obeys simple microscopic rules: • Rabbits reproduce at a given bi... |

83 | AntHocNet: an adaptive natureinspired algorithm for routing in mobile ad hoc networks
- Caro, Ducatalle, et al.
- 2005
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...so be called a “literature-inspired approach”. Examples include (a) the concept of artificial neural networks and (b) the concept of ant foraging behavior being applied to mesh network packet routing =-=[21]-=-. 4.3 Trial and Error Another approach is to explore the effect of different interaction rules at the microscopic level on the global system behavior using a trial-and-error method. The simplest trial... |

68 | Firefly-inspired sensor network synchronicity with realistic radio effects
- Werner-Allen, Tewari, et al.
- 2005
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...logies do typically not allow us to send infinitely short pulses over the air. This fact forces us to replace the infinitely short “firing pulses” by finitely long “synchronization signals” (see e.g. =-=[32, 33]-=-). Third, the wireless medium suffers from noise and attenuation, which must be taken into account for the design of a synchronization scheme as well [34]. Last but not least, to minimize the use of r... |

62 | Synchronization induced by temporal delays in pulse-coupled oscillators,” Phys
- Ernst, Pawelzik, et al.
- 1995
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...onization scheme unstable, as nodes might receive “echos” of their own firing pulse. To regain stability, a refractory period can be introduced during which nodes do not increase their phase function =-=[31, 27]-=-. Second, wireless communication technologies do typically not allow us to send infinitely short pulses over the air. This fact forces us to replace the infinitely short “firing pulses” by finitely lo... |

60 | Agent-Based Simulation Platforms: Review And Development Recommendations. Simulation
- RAILSBACK, Lytinen, et al.
- 2006
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...stems and agent based approaches lend themselves readily to incorporating game theoretic policies [17]. Many software platforms and techniques exist for building agent based models and Refs. [18] and =-=[19]-=- provide useful reviews. A major drawback to agent based modeling is the lack of rigor. Due to the complexity of the model specifications (behaviors of agents, patterns of interaction) it is difficult... |

47 | A scalable synchronization protocol for large scale sensor networks and its applications
- Hong, Scaglione
- 2005
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... long “synchronization signals” (see e.g. [32, 33]). Third, the wireless medium suffers from noise and attenuation, which must be taken into account for the design of a synchronization scheme as well =-=[34]-=-. Last but not least, to minimize the use of radio resources, it would be beneficial to minimize the signaling overhead, such that nodes only send synchronization words when needed and not periodicall... |

44 | Self-organization and a dynamical transition in traffic flow models, Phys. Rev. A 46
- Biham, Middleton, et al.
- 1992
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...Agentbased Approaches An interesting application of cellular automata, studied extensively in both the physics and the engineering communities, is the modeling and analysis of urban vehicular traffic =-=[37, 38, 39, 40]-=-. Gershenson and Rosenblueth [41] apply a two-dimensional model based on simple interaction roles. A street is modeled by a line of connected cells. Each cell can have two states, being empty (0) or o... |

41 |
Traffic Jams: Explorations in Massively Parallel Micorworlds
- Turtles
- 1994
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... in several cases a higher friction for a particular entity is beneficial for the overall system.Additionally, emergent behavior is often counterintuitive to what is expected by most people. Resnick =-=[23]-=- describes a simple simulation of a self-organizing slime mold. Several experts were asked to predict the influence of a specific parameter change on the system. The answer was binary, i. e., there wa... |

32 |
Self-organization in communication networks: principles and design paradigms
- Prehofer, Bettstetter
- 2005
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...more and more entities are interconnected to form a networked system), the notion of self-organization has also become an interesting paradigm for solving technical problems (see, e.g., references in =-=[4]-=-). In order to design a self-organizing technical system, a set of modeling approaches and design methods are needed. The goal of this paper is to give a survey of building blocks that can be used for... |

32 |
2002) Platforms and Methods for Agent-based Modeling
- GILBERT, Bankes
- 2002
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...social systems and agent based approaches lend themselves readily to incorporating game theoretic policies [17]. Many software platforms and techniques exist for building agent based models and Refs. =-=[18]-=- and [19] provide useful reviews. A major drawback to agent based modeling is the lack of rigor. Due to the complexity of the model specifications (behaviors of agents, patterns of interaction) it is ... |

30 | Blind construction of optimal nonlinear recursive predictors for discrete sequences
- Shalizi, Shalizi
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...the design process, an agent having perfect knowledge (including the opponent’s decision) is created. Then the behavior of this “perfect” agent is analyzed using Causal State Splitting Reconstruction =-=[26]-=-, i. e., a method for building recursive hidden Markov models from discrete-valued time series. The results are then implemented as FSM controling the behavior of a normal (non-omniscient) agent. The ... |

23 |
Design and Control of Self-organizing Systems
- Gershenson
- 2007
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...t processes to find a local rule set with a desirable configuration. An auxiliary concept to understand the causality between local interactions and global system behavior is introduced by Gershenson =-=[22]-=- as the the notion of friction. Friction is a property of interaction between two entities as well as a property of the overall system. This latter friction is to be minimized. By identifying and anal... |

22 |
The physics of traffic jams
- Nagatani
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...Agentbased Approaches An interesting application of cellular automata, studied extensively in both the physics and the engineering communities, is the modeling and analysis of urban vehicular traffic =-=[37, 38, 39, 40]-=-. Gershenson and Rosenblueth [41] apply a two-dimensional model based on simple interaction roles. A street is modeled by a line of connected cells. Each cell can have two states, being empty (0) or o... |

18 |
A two-person dilemma
- Tucker
- 1950
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...behavior can be successfully used by an agent with local perception. In [6], the application of this method is shown by designing an agent for the game theoretic problem “repeated prisoner’s dilemma” =-=[25]-=-. In the design process, an agent having perfect knowledge (including the opponent’s decision) is created. Then the behavior of this “perfect” agent is analyzed using Causal State Splitting Reconstruc... |

14 |
Pulse-coupled decentral synchronization
- Mathar, Mattfeldt
- 1996
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... model for firefly synchronization [10] has been employed in many fields of science and engineering. Prominent examples include self-organizing algorithms for time synchronization in wireless systems =-=[27]-=-, resource scheduling [28], reducing energy consumption in sensor networks [29], and traffic light control systems [30]. The application of firefly synchronization to mobile and wireless systems requi... |

13 |
Modeling Urban Traffic: A Cellular Automata Approach
- Tonguz, Viriyasitavat, et al.
- 2009
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...Agentbased Approaches An interesting application of cellular automata, studied extensively in both the physics and the engineering communities, is the modeling and analysis of urban vehicular traffic =-=[37, 38, 39, 40]-=-. Gershenson and Rosenblueth [41] apply a two-dimensional model based on simple interaction roles. A street is modeled by a line of connected cells. Each cell can have two states, being empty (0) or o... |

11 |
Distributed change detection in large scale sensor networks through the synchronization of pulse-coupled oscillators
- Hong, Scaglione
- 2004
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... Slotted ALOHA. Another example, where firefly synchronization has been applied to information and security technology is intrusion detection using sensor networks. One approach has been developed in =-=[36]-=-. 5.2 Vehicular Traffic: Application of Cellular Automata and Agentbased Approaches An interesting application of cellular automata, studied extensively in both the physics and the engineering communi... |

11 |
The physics of traffic and regional development
- Helbing, Nagel
(Show Context)
Citation Context |

7 |
A Method to Derive Local Interaction Strategies for Improving Cooperation in Self-Organizing Systems
- Auer, Wüchner, et al.
- 2008
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...possible. In this case, the macroscopic model could be built by (statistical) analysis of the overall behavior. This requires appropriate statistical tools to analyze emergent structures and behavior =-=[6]-=-. Such a model, although being potentially very useful in some cases, is unlikely to cover all possible aspects of the system behavior. An example is the global economy — although tremendous research ... |

7 | Fireflies as role models for synchronization in ad hoc networks
- Tyrrell, Auer, et al.
- 2006
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...logies do typically not allow us to send infinitely short pulses over the air. This fact forces us to replace the infinitely short “firing pulses” by finitely long “synchronization signals” (see e.g. =-=[32, 33]-=-). Third, the wireless medium suffers from noise and attenuation, which must be taken into account for the design of a synchronization scheme as well [34]. Last but not least, to minimize the use of r... |

5 | Self-Organizing Networked Systems for Technical Applications: A Discussion on Open Issues
- Elmenreich, Meer
- 2008
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...em that holds across several scientific disciplines, we refer to it as a set of entities that achieves a global system behavior via local interactions between its entities without centralized control =-=[2]-=-. Phenomena of self-organization can be found in many disciplines. A well-known example from nature is the flocking behavior in a school of fish. It is likely that there is no “leader fish,” but each ... |

5 |
Modeling Chemical Systems using Cellular Automata 2005
- Kier, Seybold, et al.
(Show Context)
Citation Context |

5 | Evolutionary methods in self-organizing system design
- Fehérvári, Elmenreich
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...combined. The candidates with the best “fitness” establish the population of the next generation. An example where a genetic algorithm is used to design a self-organizing technical system is given in =-=[24]-=-. It was used to find the interaction behavior for a distributed robot soccer team. The behavior was modeled as an artificial neural network to support an implementation of mutation and combination. 4... |

3 |
Principles of the self-organizing system
- Foerster
- 1962
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...nd case studies for applying these principles for the design and deployment of robust self-organizing networked systems. 1 Introduction The term self-organization was introduced by Ashby in the 1940s =-=[1]-=-. He referred to pattern formation occurring by the cooperative behavior of individual entities. Such formation can be described by entities achieving their structure without any external influence. T... |

3 |
Firefly clock synchronization in an 802.15.4 wireless network
- Leidenfrost, Elmenreich
- 2009
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ence and engineering. Prominent examples include self-organizing algorithms for time synchronization in wireless systems [27], resource scheduling [28], reducing energy consumption in sensor networks =-=[29]-=-, and traffic light control systems [30]. The application of firefly synchronization to mobile and wireless systems requires us to perform some modifications and extensions to the original scheme. The... |

2 |
The chemical basis of morphogenisis
- Turing
- 1952
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...which generate patterns similar to those observed in Rayleigh-Bénard convection, viscous fingering, spiral waves in chemical reactions and a range of additional structures such as stripes and tilings =-=[7, 8]-=-. Many of these patterns are also observed in biological systems, with differential equations providing models of organism growth and differentiation [7, 9]. Ref [8] provides a comprehensive review of... |

2 |
Blended winglets
- Faye, Laprete, et al.
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...n. Examples of top-down approaches are (a) the design of aeroplane wings by observing the gliding flight of birds and (b) the design of turbulence-reducing winglets by analyzing the wingtips of birds =-=[20]-=-. In the bottom-up (or indirect) approach, the working principle of the system is first abstracted from its natural context. This step is done in a basic research effort that is not yet targeted at th... |

1 |
Desynchronization: Self-organizing algorithms for periodic resource scheduling
- Patel, Degesys, et al.
- 2007
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...nization [10] has been employed in many fields of science and engineering. Prominent examples include self-organizing algorithms for time synchronization in wireless systems [27], resource scheduling =-=[28]-=-, reducing energy consumption in sensor networks [29], and traffic light control systems [30]. The application of firefly synchronization to mobile and wireless systems requires us to perform some mod... |

1 |
Traffic light control system and method
- Bayraktaroglu
- 1990
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... include self-organizing algorithms for time synchronization in wireless systems [27], resource scheduling [28], reducing energy consumption in sensor networks [29], and traffic light control systems =-=[30]-=-. The application of firefly synchronization to mobile and wireless systems requires us to perform some modifications and extensions to the original scheme. These changes are required, since the assum... |

1 |
Modeling self-organizing traffic lights with elementary cellular automata. C3 report 2009.06, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de
- Gershenson, Rosenblueth
- 2009
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ion of cellular automata, studied extensively in both the physics and the engineering communities, is the modeling and analysis of urban vehicular traffic [37, 38, 39, 40]. Gershenson and Rosenblueth =-=[41]-=- apply a two-dimensional model based on simple interaction roles. A street is modeled by a line of connected cells. Each cell can have two states, being empty (0) or occupied by a car (1). The interac... |