## A Survey of Models and Design Methods for Self-Organizing Networked Systems

Citations: | 4 - 0 self |

### BibTeX

@MISC{Elmenreich_asurvey,

author = {Wilfried Elmenreich and Christian Bettstetter and Hermann De Meer},

title = {A Survey of Models and Design Methods for Self-Organizing Networked Systems},

year = {}

}

### OpenURL

### Abstract

Self-organization, whereby through purely local interactions, global order and structure emerge, is studied broadly across many fields of science, economics, and engineering. We review several existing methods and modeling techniques used to understand self-organization in a general manner. We then present implementation concepts and case studies for applying these principles for the design and deployment of robust self-organizing networked systems. 1

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Citation Context ...t processes to find a local rule set with a desirable configuration. An auxiliary concept to understand the causality between local interactions and global system behavior is introduced by Gershenson =-=[22]-=- as the the notion of friction. Friction is a property of interaction between two entities as well as a property of the overall system. This latter friction is to be minimized. By identifying and anal... |

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Citation Context ... model for firefly synchronization [10] has been employed in many fields of science and engineering. Prominent examples include self-organizing algorithms for time synchronization in wireless systems =-=[27]-=-, resource scheduling [28], reducing energy consumption in sensor networks [29], and traffic light control systems [30]. The application of firefly synchronization to mobile and wireless systems requi... |

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Citation Context ...possible. In this case, the macroscopic model could be built by (statistical) analysis of the overall behavior. This requires appropriate statistical tools to analyze emergent structures and behavior =-=[6]-=-. Such a model, although being potentially very useful in some cases, is unlikely to cover all possible aspects of the system behavior. An example is the global economy — although tremendous research ... |

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Citation Context ...logies do typically not allow us to send infinitely short pulses over the air. This fact forces us to replace the infinitely short “firing pulses” by finitely long “synchronization signals” (see e.g. =-=[32, 33]-=-). Third, the wireless medium suffers from noise and attenuation, which must be taken into account for the design of a synchronization scheme as well [34]. Last but not least, to minimize the use of r... |

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Citation Context ...em that holds across several scientific disciplines, we refer to it as a set of entities that achieves a global system behavior via local interactions between its entities without centralized control =-=[2]-=-. Phenomena of self-organization can be found in many disciplines. A well-known example from nature is the flocking behavior in a school of fish. It is likely that there is no “leader fish,” but each ... |

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Citation Context ...nd case studies for applying these principles for the design and deployment of robust self-organizing networked systems. 1 Introduction The term self-organization was introduced by Ashby in the 1940s =-=[1]-=-. He referred to pattern formation occurring by the cooperative behavior of individual entities. Such formation can be described by entities achieving their structure without any external influence. T... |

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Citation Context ...which generate patterns similar to those observed in Rayleigh-Bénard convection, viscous fingering, spiral waves in chemical reactions and a range of additional structures such as stripes and tilings =-=[7, 8]-=-. Many of these patterns are also observed in biological systems, with differential equations providing models of organism growth and differentiation [7, 9]. Ref [8] provides a comprehensive review of... |

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Citation Context ...nization [10] has been employed in many fields of science and engineering. Prominent examples include self-organizing algorithms for time synchronization in wireless systems [27], resource scheduling =-=[28]-=-, reducing energy consumption in sensor networks [29], and traffic light control systems [30]. The application of firefly synchronization to mobile and wireless systems requires us to perform some mod... |

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Citation Context ... include self-organizing algorithms for time synchronization in wireless systems [27], resource scheduling [28], reducing energy consumption in sensor networks [29], and traffic light control systems =-=[30]-=-. The application of firefly synchronization to mobile and wireless systems requires us to perform some modifications and extensions to the original scheme. These changes are required, since the assum... |

1 |
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Citation Context ...ion of cellular automata, studied extensively in both the physics and the engineering communities, is the modeling and analysis of urban vehicular traffic [37, 38, 39, 40]. Gershenson and Rosenblueth =-=[41]-=- apply a two-dimensional model based on simple interaction roles. A street is modeled by a line of connected cells. Each cell can have two states, being empty (0) or occupied by a car (1). The interac... |