## ABC

### BibTeX

@MISC{Dolan_abc,

author = {Conor V Dolan and Ellen L Hamaker},

title = {ABC},

year = {}

}

### OpenURL

### Abstract

Investigating black-white differences in psychometric IQ:

### Citations

989 |
Structural equations with latent variables
- Bollen
- 1989
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...tifying constraints are necessary to estimate variances of common factors and differences between groups in means of these factors. The identifying constraints are well known in the literature (e.g., =-=Bollen, 1989-=-). Let yij denote the observed p-dimensional random column vector of subject j (j=1…Ni) in population i. As we are only concerned with blacks or whites, we have i=b or i=w. The following factor model ... |

421 |
Alternative ways of assessing model fit
- Browne, Cudeck
- 1993
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... of) fit, rather than as a formal test-statistic (Jöreskog, 1993). The index χ 2 /df is a simple measure of fit which takes into account the degrees of freedom of the model. The RMSEA (Steiger, 1990; =-=Browne and Cudeck, 1993-=-) is a measure of the error of approximation of the specified model covariance and mean structures to the covariance and mean structures in the population(s). As a rule 1 All LISREL input files used i... |

172 |
EQS structural equations program manual
- Bentler
- 2004
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...1994; Horn and McArdle, 1992; Schaie, Willis, Jay and Chipuer, 1998; Millsap and Everson, 1991; Dolan and Molenaar, 1994; Little, 1997). Standard software can be used to carry out MGCFA, such as EQS (=-=Bentler, 1990-=-), Mx (Neale, 1997), or LISREL (Jöreskog and Sörbom, 1999). Here we consider the same three models as Dolan (2000). We call these the 1 7 st order multi-group confirmatory factor model (MGCFM), the 2 ... |

163 |
The g factor: The science of mental ability
- Jensen
- 1998
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...agenda, it is due in no small part to the work of Jensen. His efforts in this area spans over 30 years and has culminated in the publication of his book "The g factor. The science of mental ability" (=-=Jensen, 1998-=-). This books addresses many aspects relating to the hypothetical construct of general intelligence, or simply g as it is denoted. Two chapters of this book, which addresses many aspects relating to t... |

133 |
Factor analysis as a statistical method
- Lawley, Maxwell
- 1971
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... of Spearman's hypothesis. Multi-group confirmatory factor models MGCFA is a well established technique to investigate group differences in means and covariances within the common factor model (e.g., =-=Lawley and Maxwell, 1971-=-; Jöreskog, 1971; Sörbom, 1974; Rock, Werts, and Flaugher, 1978; Hanna, 1984; Byrne, Shavelson and Muthén, 1989; Marsh and Grayson, 1990, 1994; Horn and McArdle, 1992; Schaie, Willis, Jay and Chipuer,... |

114 |
Structural model evaluation and modification: An interval estimation approach
- Steiger
- 1990
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ure of (badness of) fit, rather than as a formal test-statistic (Jöreskog, 1993). The index χ 2 /df is a simple measure of fit which takes into account the degrees of freedom of the model. The RMSEA (=-=Steiger, 1990-=-; Browne and Cudeck, 1993) is a measure of the error of approximation of the specified model covariance and mean structures to the covariance and mean structures in the population(s). As a rule 1 All ... |

97 |
Measurement invariance, factor analysis and factorial invariance
- Meredith
- 1993
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...t the general usefulness of this methodology is not fully recognized. For instance, the recent book by Jencks and Phillips (1998) contains no references to the relevant literature (e.g., Sörbom,1974; =-=Meredith, 1993-=-). The present chapter is organized as follows. We first present Jensen's procedure for carrying out the method of correlated vectors. Next we present various MGCFM's that may be applied in studying b... |

66 | Simultaneous factor analysis in several populations - Jöreskog - 1971 |

65 |
MC.MX: Statistical Modeling
- Neale
- 1998
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...le, 1992; Schaie, Willis, Jay and Chipuer, 1998; Millsap and Everson, 1991; Dolan and Molenaar, 1994; Little, 1997). Standard software can be used to carry out MGCFA, such as EQS (Bentler, 1990), Mx (=-=Neale, 1997-=-), or LISREL (Jöreskog and Sörbom, 1999). Here we consider the same three models as Dolan (2000). We call these the 1 7 st order multi-group confirmatory factor model (MGCFM), the 2 nd order MGCFM, an... |

58 |
Testing structural equation models
- Jöreskog
- 1993
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...distributed, normal theory maximum likelihood (ML) estimation may be applied to obtain estimates, χ 2 goodness of fit indices based on the likelihood ratio, as well as a variety of other fit indices (=-=Jöreskog, 1993-=-). MGCFM's incorporating Spearman's hypothesis Millsap (1997b) discussed the relationship between Jensen's test of Spearman's hypothesis and factorial invariance. He showed that the collinearity of di... |

51 | The abilities of man: Their nature and measurement - Spearman - 1927 |

47 |
The black-white test score gap
- Jencks, Phillips, et al.
- 1998
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... suggest that most social scientists have chosen safer topics and hoped that the problem would go away. As is evident from good modern textbooks (e.g., Mackintosh, 1998), recent edited volumes (e.g., =-=Jencks and Phillips, 1998-=-; Devlin, Fienberg, Resnick and Roeder, 1997), and articles (e.g., Nyborg and Jensen, 2000), the problem has not gone away. In so far as the subject of b-w differences in IQ test scores have been on t... |

45 |
The development of hierarchical factor solutions
- Schmid, Leiman
- 1957
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...re, the common factor g features as a second order common factor (e.g., Jensen and Reynolds, 1982; Naglieri and Jensen, 1987) and is usually extracted using Schmid-Leiman exploratory factor analysis (=-=Schmid and Leiman, 1957-=-). To accommodate this conceptualization of g within the present model, we extend the model as follows (see Jöreskog and Sörbom, 1989). Let ηij = [Γ ξij + ζij], where Γ is a (qxr) matrix of loadings o... |

37 |
A general method for studying differences in factor means and factor structure between groups
- Sörbom
- 1974
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...firmatory factor models MGCFA is a well established technique to investigate group differences in means and covariances within the common factor model (e.g., Lawley and Maxwell, 1971; Jöreskog, 1971; =-=Sörbom, 1974-=-; Rock, Werts, and Flaugher, 1978; Hanna, 1984; Byrne, Shavelson and Muthén, 1989; Marsh and Grayson, 1990, 1994; Horn and McArdle, 1992; Schaie, Willis, Jay and Chipuer, 1998; Millsap and Everson, 19... |

24 |
A unifying model for the structure of intellectual abilities
- Gustafsson
- 1984
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...purporting to demonstrate the existence of general intelligence. One problem is that it may be very difficult to distinguish between first order factors and second order g when model fitting is used (=-=Gustafsson, 1984-=-). We can illustrate this problem by fixing the residual 3 Dolan (2000), fitting the same models to the WISC-R data published in Jensen and Reynolds (1982), found that models B5, C4 and A4 fit about e... |

21 |
A Practical and Theoretical Guide to Measurement Invariance in Aging Research
- Horn, McArdle
- 1992
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... the common factor model (e.g., Lawley and Maxwell, 1971; Jöreskog, 1971; Sörbom, 1974; Rock, Werts, and Flaugher, 1978; Hanna, 1984; Byrne, Shavelson and Muthén, 1989; Marsh and Grayson, 1990, 1994; =-=Horn and McArdle, 1992-=-; Schaie, Willis, Jay and Chipuer, 1998; Millsap and Everson, 1991; Dolan and Molenaar, 1994; Little, 1997). Standard software can be used to carry out MGCFA, such as EQS (Bentler, 1990), Mx (Neale, 1... |

21 |
Human cognitive capabilities: Gf-Gc theory
- Horn, Noll
- 1997
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...of the present chapter is necessarily limited. We do not address the theoretical aspects of g. We recognize that there are those who do subscribe to the idea of g (Jensen, 1998) and those who do not (=-=Horn and Noll, 1997-=-). Concerning covariance structure analysis, we accept that the linear common factor model is a useful point of departure in analyzing IQ test scores, especially in the light of Meredith's work on mea... |

21 | CoventorWareTM Reference Guide - Inc - 2002 |

20 |
The nature of the Black-White difference on various psychometric tests: Spearman's hypothesis. The Behavioral and Brain Sciences
- Jensen
- 1985
(Show Context)
Citation Context ....63 (Jensen, 1998, p. 378). Spearman's hypothesis and the method of correlated vectors have received considerable attention. They have been the subject of a Brain and Behavioral Science target paper (=-=Jensen, 1985-=-), and of special issues of both Multivariate Behavioral Research (Guttman, 1992) and Cahiers de Psychologie Cognitive (Schönemann, 1997). Invited commentaries in these issues have addressed many aspe... |

19 |
Model modification
- Sörbom
- 1989
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...racted using Schmid-Leiman exploratory factor analysis (Schmid and Leiman, 1957). To accommodate this conceptualization of g within the present model, we extend the model as follows (see Jöreskog and =-=Sörbom, 1989-=-). Let ηij = [Γ ξij + ζij], where Γ is a (qxr) matrix of loadings of the q first order factor scores, ηij, on the r second order factor scores, ξij, and ζij is a q-dimensional vector of random (first ... |

18 | Investigating Spearman’s hypothesis by means of multi-group confirmatory factor analysis. Multivariate Behavioral research
- Dolan
- 2008
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...correlation is necessarily indicative of the central role of g. As a means of demonstrating the centrality of g in IQ related b-w differences, Spearman correlations are patently crude and circuitous (=-=Dolan, 2000-=-; Lubke, Dolan and Kelderman, 2001). The correlation, which is so central to the test of Spearman's hypothesis, may be difficult to interpret and potentially misleading. As its methodological weakness... |

15 | Hierarchical models of individual differences in cognitive abilities - Gustafsson - 1988 |

12 |
Racial bias in testing
- Jencks
- 1998
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ion, because it implies that measurement bias, as defined by Mellenbergh (1989), is absent. Measurement bias, or content bias as Jencks and Phillips (1998) call it, is generally assumed to be absent (=-=Jencks, 1998-=-). It is nice to find support for this using the appropriate methodology. This finding also sheds light on the issue of the relationship between sources of within-group and between-group differences. ... |

12 |
Invariance in measurement and prediction: Their relationship in the single factor case
- Millsap
- 1997
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...correlated vectors is 4based on our own work (Dolan, 1997; 2000; Dolan and Lubke, 2001; Lubke, Dolan and Kelderman, 2001), but also draws on a number of the published commentaries (Gustafsson, 1992; =-=Millsap, 1997-=-b; Horn, 1997; Loehlin, 1992). The suggestion of applying MGCFA to investigate b-w differences is not new (see Gustafsson 1992; Horn, 1997; Millsap, 1997b; Dolan, 1997), but has not, to our knowledge,... |

11 | Confirmatory measurement model comparisons using latent means - Millsap, Everson - 1991 |

11 |
Secular gains in IQ not related to the g factor and inbreeding depression—unlike Black–White differences: A reply to Flynn. Personality and Individual Differences
- Rushton
- 1999
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...method of correlated vectors is being applied on an ever increasing scale in the United States and beyond (Lynn and Owen, 1994; te Nijenhuis and van der Flier 1997; te Nijenhuis, Evers and Mur, 2000; =-=Rushton, 1999-=-). The present chapter has two aims. First we identify a number of methodological weaknesses of the method of correlated vectors by considering Spearman's hypothesis in the light of the underlying mul... |

8 | Spearman's hypothesis: Methodology and evidence - Jensen - 1992 |

7 |
The relevance of factor analysis for the study of group differences
- Gustafsson
- 1992
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... on the method of correlated vectors is 4based on our own work (Dolan, 1997; 2000; Dolan and Lubke, 2001; Lubke, Dolan and Kelderman, 2001), but also draws on a number of the published commentaries (=-=Gustafsson, 1992-=-; Millsap, 1997b; Horn, 1997; Loehlin, 1992). The suggestion of applying MGCFA to investigate b-w differences is not new (see Gustafsson 1992; Horn, 1997; Millsap, 1997b; Dolan, 1997), but has not, to... |

7 | Using confirmatory factor analysis to aid in understanding the constructs measured by intelligence tests - Keith - 2005 |

7 |
Spearman's hypothesis and test score differences between Whites
- Lynn, Owen
- 1994
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...erating commentaries (or commentaries on commentaries, e.g., Dolan and Lubke, 2001), and the method of correlated vectors is being applied on an ever increasing scale in the United States and beyond (=-=Lynn and Owen, 1994-=-; te Nijenhuis and van der Flier 1997; te Nijenhuis, Evers and Mur, 2000; Rushton, 1999). The present chapter has two aims. First we identify a number of methodological weaknesses of the method of cor... |

7 |
The investigation of Spearman’s hypothesis and the failure to understand factor analysis. Cahiers de Psychologie Cognitive
- Millsap
- 1997
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...correlated vectors is 4based on our own work (Dolan, 1997; 2000; Dolan and Lubke, 2001; Lubke, Dolan and Kelderman, 2001), but also draws on a number of the published commentaries (Gustafsson, 1992; =-=Millsap, 1997-=-b; Horn, 1997; Loehlin, 1992). The suggestion of applying MGCFA to investigate b-w differences is not new (see Gustafsson 1992; Horn, 1997; Millsap, 1997b; Dolan, 1997), but has not, to our knowledge,... |

6 | LISREL VII: A Guide to the Program and Applications - Jöreskog, Sörbom - 1988 |

6 |
Mean and Covariance Structures (MACS) Analysis of Cross-Cultural Data
- LITTLE
- 1997
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...978; Hanna, 1984; Byrne, Shavelson and Muthén, 1989; Marsh and Grayson, 1990, 1994; Horn and McArdle, 1992; Schaie, Willis, Jay and Chipuer, 1998; Millsap and Everson, 1991; Dolan and Molenaar, 1994; =-=Little, 1997-=-). Standard software can be used to carry out MGCFA, such as EQS (Bentler, 1990), Mx (Neale, 1997), or LISREL (Jöreskog and Sörbom, 1999). Here we consider the same three models as Dolan (2000). We ca... |

6 | Investigating group differences on cognitive tests using Spearman’s hypothesis: An evaluation of Jensen’s method - Lubke, Dolan, et al. - 2001 |

6 |
Public/Catholic differences in the high school and beyond data: A multigroup structural equation modeling approach to testing mean differences
- Marsh, Grayson
- 1990
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...in means and covariances within the common factor model (e.g., Lawley and Maxwell, 1971; Jöreskog, 1971; Sörbom, 1974; Rock, Werts, and Flaugher, 1978; Hanna, 1984; Byrne, Shavelson and Muthén, 1989; =-=Marsh and Grayson, 1990-=-, 1994; Horn and McArdle, 1992; Schaie, Willis, Jay and Chipuer, 1998; Millsap and Everson, 1991; Dolan and Molenaar, 1994; Little, 1997). Standard software can be used to carry out MGCFA, such as EQS... |

5 |
On the mathematical relationship between factor or component coefficients and differences in means. Cahiers de Psychologie Cognitive
- Horn
- 1997
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...rs is 4based on our own work (Dolan, 1997; 2000; Dolan and Lubke, 2001; Lubke, Dolan and Kelderman, 2001), but also draws on a number of the published commentaries (Gustafsson, 1992; Millsap, 1997b; =-=Horn, 1997-=-; Loehlin, 1992). The suggestion of applying MGCFA to investigate b-w differences is not new (see Gustafsson 1992; Horn, 1997; Millsap, 1997b; Dolan, 1997), but has not, to our knowledge, resulted in ... |

5 | Longitudinal stability of latent means and individual differences: A unified approach - Marsh, Grayson - 1994 |

5 | Comparability of GATB scores for immigrants and majority group members: Some Dutch findings - Nijenhuis, T, et al. - 1997 |

4 | Viewing Spearman's hypothesis from the perspective of multigroup PCA: A comment on Schonemann's criticism - Dolan, Lubke - 2001 |

4 | A longitudinal analysis using the LISRELmodel with structured means - Hanna, Lei - 1985 |

4 | The Black-White difference on the K-ABC: Implications for future tests - Jensen - 1984 |

4 |
Multiple group irt modeling: Applications to item bias analysis
- Muthén, Lehman
- 1985
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... common factors in the model. The finding that 14factorial invariance is tenable suggests that the tests are unbiased with respect to group (Mellenbergh, 1989; Meredith, 1993; Millsap, 1997a, 1997b; =-=Muthén and Lehman, 1985-=-; Oort, 1996). Although it is an important aspect of SFI, the equality constraint on the covariance matrices of the residual variance terms is sometimes dropped (i.e., Θw ≠Θb). One reason for this is ... |

4 | Structural invariance of cognitive abilities across the adult life span: A cross-sectional study - Schaie, Willis, et al. - 1989 |

4 |
Detection of correlated errors in longitudinal data
- Sörbom
- 1975
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...Ψi is positive definite. As the residual scores include both random measurement error and unique systematic effects, the specification that εij~Np(0,Θ) represents a strong assumption (Meredith, 1993; =-=Sörbom, 1975-=-). The observed variables are distributed yij~Np(µi,Σi), where, assuming E[(ηij−αi) εijt]=0, µi = ν + Λ αi (1a) Σi = ΛΨiΛ t + Θ. (1b) 8The variances of the common factors are not identified. The vari... |

3 | Introduction. In: K.A.Bollen and J.S. Long (Eds.). Testing structural equation models - Bollen, Long - 1993 |

3 |
A note on Schönemann’s refutation of Spearman’s hypothesis
- Dolan
- 1997
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... superior method to investigate Spearman's hypothesis (both versions), to a published data set (Naglieri and Jensen, 1987). Our comment on the method of correlated vectors is 4based on our own work (=-=Dolan, 1997-=-; 2000; Dolan and Lubke, 2001; Lubke, Dolan and Kelderman, 2001), but also draws on a number of the published commentaries (Gustafsson, 1992; Millsap, 1997b; Horn, 1997; Loehlin, 1992). The suggestion... |

3 |
Using restricted factor analysis in test construction
- Oort
- 1996
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...del. The finding that 14factorial invariance is tenable suggests that the tests are unbiased with respect to group (Mellenbergh, 1989; Meredith, 1993; Millsap, 1997a, 1997b; Muthén and Lehman, 1985; =-=Oort, 1996-=-). Although it is an important aspect of SFI, the equality constraint on the covariance matrices of the residual variance terms is sometimes dropped (i.e., Θw ≠Θb). One reason for this is that these t... |

3 | Optimal procedures for the estimation of factor scores - Saris, Pijper, et al. - 1978 |

3 |
Famous artefacts: Spearman’s hypothesis
- Schönemann
- 1997
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ve been the subject of a Brain and Behavioral Science target paper (Jensen, 1985), and of special issues of both Multivariate Behavioral Research (Guttman, 1992) and Cahiers de Psychologie Cognitive (=-=Schönemann, 1997-=-). Invited commentaries in these issues have addressed many aspects of the hypothesis and the method of correlated vectors. Furthermore, this subject is still generating commentaries (or commentaries ... |

2 |
Testing specific hypotheses concerning latent group differences in multi-group covariance structure analysis with structured means
- Dolan, Molenaar
- 1994
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ck, Werts, and Flaugher, 1978; Hanna, 1984; Byrne, Shavelson and Muthén, 1989; Marsh and Grayson, 1990, 1994; Horn and McArdle, 1992; Schaie, Willis, Jay and Chipuer, 1998; Millsap and Everson, 1991; =-=Dolan and Molenaar, 1994-=-; Little, 1997). Standard software can be used to carry out MGCFA, such as EQS (Bentler, 1990), Mx (Neale, 1997), or LISREL (Jöreskog and Sörbom, 1999). Here we consider the same three models as Dolan... |