## Contents List of Abbreviations List of Symbols

### BibTeX

@MISC{Aftanas_contentslist,

author = {Ing Michal Aftanas},

title = {Contents List of Abbreviations List of Symbols},

year = {}

}

### OpenURL

### Abstract

Thesis to the dissertation examination

### Citations

1339 |
Classical Electrodynamics
- Jackson
- 1999
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ects made up of perfect conductors, whereas objects made up of ’strong conductors’ are ’almost impenetrable’, in the sense that the impinging wave penetrates inside the object only to a shallow depth =-=[55]-=-. For such a class of objects, it is thus possible to reconstruct only the objects shape but not to ’look’ inside them. This is what happens at optical frequencies, when the impinging electromagnetic ... |

455 |
Multiple emitter location and signal parameter estimation
- Schmidt
- 1986
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ain at a time corresponding to the arrival of the first reflection. An alternative method of resolving overlapping echoes is based on the use of the MUltiple SIgnal Characterization (MUSIC) algorithm =-=[102]-=-, [21]. It is a high resolution spectral estimation method and is used to estimate the received signals covariance and then perform a spectral decomposition.2.4 Data Calibration and Preprocessing 22 ... |

420 |
Regularization of Inverse Problems
- Engl, Hank, et al.
- 1996
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...tem impulse response to the measured data is the most complex calibration process. There are lots of less or more complicated methods how to do it, described here [98], [28], [100], [101], [89], [5], =-=[39]-=-. However, the main principle is every time the same. Long impulse response2.4 Data Calibration and Preprocessing 20 1 Crosstalk mesured in anechoic chamber room 1 Crosstalk mesured inside building C... |

296 |
M: Principles of Computerized Tomographic Imaging
- Kak, Slaney
- 1999
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ch and this methods produce a lot of artifacts. Conflict in names of basic imaging methods become evident in simple geometrical approach. This method is often called also back projection [109], [51], =-=[58]-=-, [31] [66] or diffraction summation [75], [88], [73], [83], [76]. Moreover this geometrical approach is often incorrectly called Kirchhoff migration [30], [23], [22] [122], [125]. Though the topic is... |

145 |
Fast Fourier transforms for nonequispaced data
- Dutt, Rokhlin
- 1993
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...son why f-k migration has lots of improvements and modifications. Some of them will be described in this section. 4.5.1 Nonuniform FFT Important contributions to this method are from Dutt and Rokhlin =-=[37]-=-, G. Beylkin [13] and Qing H. Liu and N. Nguyen in [69]. NonUniform Fast Fourier Transformation (NUFFT) is based on classical Stolt migration with some improvements. Stolt migration require for using ... |

105 |
Linograms in image reconstruction from projections
- Edholm
- 1987
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...approach and this methods produce a lot of artifacts. Conflict in names of basic imaging methods become evident in simple geometrical approach. This method is often called also back projection [109], =-=[51]-=-, [58], [31] [66] or diffraction summation [75], [88], [73], [83], [76]. Moreover this geometrical approach is often incorrectly called Kirchhoff migration [30], [23], [22] [122], [125]. Though the to... |

95 |
On the fast Fourier transform of functions with singularities
- Beylkin
- 1995
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...tion has lots of improvements and modifications. Some of them will be described in this section. 4.5.1 Nonuniform FFT Important contributions to this method are from Dutt and Rokhlin [37], G. Beylkin =-=[13]-=- and Qing H. Liu and N. Nguyen in [69]. NonUniform Fast Fourier Transformation (NUFFT) is based on classical Stolt migration with some improvements. Stolt migration require for using FFT algorithms eq... |

72 |
Introduction to Inverse Problems
- Bertero, Boccacci
- 1998
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...oblem and in the last time this topic becomes an individual science discipline. In conjunction with radar imaging some of good works can be find in [28] - chapter 7.9, [59] - chapter 6, or [79], [6], =-=[12]-=-, [14], [25]. In this work only basic principle will be introduced. From this point of view, migration can be mean as an approximate solution to the general elastic wavefield inversion problem [46]. F... |

70 |
Migration by Fourier Transform
- Stolt
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... disadvantages of this method. 3.4 f-k Migration Wave equation based migration can be done also in frequency domain. Mr. Stolt in 1978 showed that migration problem can be solved by Fourier transform =-=[106]-=-. The basic principle will be described for 2D problem. Completely mathematically solution is very precisely shown in [106] or in [73], so only the basic relations and principle of the method will be ... |

54 |
Earth soundings analysis: Processing versus inversion
- Claerbout
- 1992
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...alled also back projection [109], [51], [58], [31] [66] or diffraction summation [75], [88], [73], [83], [76]. Moreover this geometrical approach is often incorrectly called Kirchhoff migration [30], =-=[23]-=-, [22] [122], [125]. Though the topic is through wall imaging so at least some wall has to be considered. Because the wall has another permitivity and permeability like free space the wave inside the ... |

41 |
Super-resolution processing of multi-static data using time reversal and MUSIC,” Northeastern University Report, available at http://www.ece.neu.edu/faculty/devaney/ajd/preprints.htm
- Devaney
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... firstly introduce by Therrien in 1992 [108]. It is a method for estimating individual frequencies of multiple time harmonic signals. The use of MUSIC in imaging was first proposed by Devaney in 2000 =-=[32]-=-. He applied the algorithm to the problem of estimating the locations of a number of point-like scatterers. Detailed description is in [32], [21] and [62]. MUSIC for image processing has been develope... |

33 |
The MUSIC algorithm and the factorization method in inverse scattering theory for inhomogeneous media, Inverse Problems
- Kirsch
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...imaging was first proposed by Devaney in 2000 [32]. He applied the algorithm to the problem of estimating the locations of a number of point-like scatterers. Detailed description is in [32], [21] and =-=[62]-=-. MUSIC for image processing has been developed for multistatic radar systems. It is the way equations based method. The basic idea of MUSIC is the formulation of the so called multistatic response ma... |

33 |
A new slant on seismic imaging: migration and integral geometry,” Geoph
- Miller, Oristaglio, et al.
- 1987
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...facts. Conflict in names of basic imaging methods become evident in simple geometrical approach. This method is often called also back projection [109], [51], [58], [31] [66] or diffraction summation =-=[75]-=-, [88], [73], [83], [76]. Moreover this geometrical approach is often incorrectly called Kirchhoff migration [30], [23], [22] [122], [125]. Though the topic is through wall imaging so at least some wa... |

33 |
The regular Fourier matrices and nonuniform fast Fourier transforms
- Nguyen, Liu
- 1999
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...that is why the regular FFT can not be applied. NUFFT propose an approach to achieve the fast Fourier transform for nonuniform data by using an another class of matrices, the regular Fourier matrices =-=[80]-=-. This algorithm, with the same complexity like Stolt migration O (N 2 log N) where N is the number of data points, is more accurate, because approximation error is minimized in the leastsquare sense.... |

32 |
A simple method using Morozov’s discrepancy principle for solving inverse scattering problems
- Colton, Piana, et al.
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... the last time this topic becomes an individual science discipline. In conjunction with radar imaging some of good works can be find in [28] - chapter 7.9, [59] - chapter 6, or [79], [6], [12], [14], =-=[25]-=-. In this work only basic principle will be introduced. From this point of view, migration can be mean as an approximate solution to the general elastic wavefield inversion problem [46]. Full elastic ... |

27 |
F.,1967: "Numerical Applications of a Formalism for Geophysical Inverse Problems
- Backus, Gilbert
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...se problem and in the last time this topic becomes an individual science discipline. In conjunction with radar imaging some of good works can be find in [28] - chapter 7.9, [59] - chapter 6, or [79], =-=[6]-=-, [12], [14], [25]. In this work only basic principle will be introduced. From this point of view, migration can be mean as an approximate solution to the general elastic wavefield inversion problem [... |

23 |
Integral formulation for migration in two and three dimensions
- Schneider
- 1978
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... requirement that the integration surface must extend all the way around the volume containing the observation point must be dropped. There are various ways to make both of these arguments. Schneider =-=[103]-=- solved the requirement of ∂nψ by using a dipole Green’s function with an image source above the recording place, that vanished at z = 0 and cancelled the ∂nψ term in (3.19). Wiggins in [111] adapted ... |

21 |
Geophysical signal analysis
- Robinson, Treitel
- 1980
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...00 250 300 350 400 450 500 −0.4 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 Time [Chips] Time [Chips] a) b) Figure 2.7: Metal plate behind front wall a) Before deconvolution b) After deconvolution Treitel =-=[88]-=-. The selection of a suitable filter depends on the characteristics of the signal. As the sample data set is composed of signal, noise and clutter, the question of the stability of the filter must be ... |

20 | The linear sampling method and the MUSIC algorithm
- Cheney
- 2001
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...a time corresponding to the arrival of the first reflection. An alternative method of resolving overlapping echoes is based on the use of the MUltiple SIgnal Characterization (MUSIC) algorithm [102], =-=[21]-=-. It is a high resolution spectral estimation method and is used to estimate the received signals covariance and then perform a spectral decomposition.2.4 Data Calibration and Preprocessing 22 Althou... |

17 |
Essai expérimental et analytique sur les lois del la Dilatabilité de fluides élastique et sur celles de la Force expansive de la vapeur de l’eau et de la vapeur de l’alkool, à différentes températures. J. de l’École Polytechnique 1 (Floréal et Prairial II
- Prony
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ationally intensive, evaluation of the technique by Schmidt [102] gave promising results. The application of analytical methods of target discrimination started with the application of Prony’s method =-=[82]-=- to target recognition. The basis of the technique is that every object will possess a unique resonant characteristic. Hence every target can be identified in terms of its resonant characteristic. In ... |

15 |
Extended chirp scaling algorithm for air- and spaceborne SAR data processing in stripmap and ScanSAR imaging modes
- Moreira, Mittermayer, et al.
- 1996
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... al. in [85] in 2006. In the case of airborne measurements, wavenumber-domain processing is limited because of its inability to perform highprecision motion compensation. Extended Chirp Scaling (ECS) =-=[77]-=- algorithm has proven to be very powerful, although it has certain limitations concerning long aperture syntheses and highly squinted geometries. Reigber in this paper analytically derived a new strip... |

15 |
Ultra-wideband through-the-wall propagation
- Muqaibel, Safaai-Jazi, et al.
- 2005
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...all measurements. The resolution limitation is around tenths of centimeters. Another diagrams and tables of different wall penetrating looses and frequencies characteristics can be found in [2], [4], =-=[78]-=-, [63].2.3 Through Wall Radar Data Representation 16 0 Through the Air and Wall Measurements −10 −20 Amplitude [dB] −30 −40 −50 Through the Air Measurement Through the Wall Measurement −60 0 1 2 3 4 ... |

14 |
Prestack residual migration in the frequency domain
- Sava
- 2003
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...e obtained in terms of enhanced mainlobe, suppressed sidelobes, and reduced noise. 4.5.5 Prestack Residual f-k Migration Prestack residual migration in the frequency domain introduced Paul C. Sava in =-=[97]-=- in 2003. This method has advantages over classical f-k migration that estimate interval velocity functions for depth migration. It is more accurate than methods that are based on focusing the stack o... |

13 |
Convolution backprojection image reconstruction for spotlight mode synthetic aperture radar
- Desai, K
- 1992
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... this methods produce a lot of artifacts. Conflict in names of basic imaging methods become evident in simple geometrical approach. This method is often called also back projection [109], [51], [58], =-=[31]-=- [66] or diffraction summation [75], [88], [73], [83], [76]. Moreover this geometrical approach is often incorrectly called Kirchhoff migration [30], [23], [22] [122], [125]. Though the topic is throu... |

13 |
An accurate algorithm for nonuniform fast Fourier transforms Ž NUFFT’s
- Liu, Nguyen
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...fications. Some of them will be described in this section. 4.5.1 Nonuniform FFT Important contributions to this method are from Dutt and Rokhlin [37], G. Beylkin [13] and Qing H. Liu and N. Nguyen in =-=[69]-=-. NonUniform Fast Fourier Transformation (NUFFT) is based on classical Stolt migration with some improvements. Stolt migration require for using FFT algorithms equally spaced input data. In many pract... |

13 |
Through-Wall Imaging (TWI) by Radar: 2-D Tomographic Results and Analysis
- Song, Yu, et al.
- 2005
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...at noise levels of 20, 30 and 40 dB, there were still a number of poles dominant that remain stable at their respective locations. Simulated data were used. Lin-Ping Song, Chun Yu and Qing Huo Liu in =-=[105]-=- in December 2005 developed two-dimensional nonlinear inverse scattering technique for imaging objects in a multilayered medium that simulates the effects of building walls in the context5.1 Review o... |

12 | Image estimation by example: geophysical soundings image construction
- Claerbout, Fomel
- 2010
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...also back projection [109], [51], [58], [31] [66] or diffraction summation [75], [88], [73], [83], [76]. Moreover this geometrical approach is often incorrectly called Kirchhoff migration [30], [23], =-=[22]-=- [122], [125]. Though the topic is through wall imaging so at least some wall has to be considered. Because the wall has another permitivity and permeability like free space the wave inside the wall w... |

10 |
Theory of Seismic Imaging
- Scales
- 1997
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...s θ ⃗vr [ ] ∂ψ dsurf = ∂t r/⃗v ∮ S0 4 cos θ vr [ ] ∂ψ dsurf (3.25) ∂t 2r/v Finally this is a Kirchhoff migration equation. This result was derived by many authors including Schneider [103] and Scales =-=[99]-=-. It expresses migration by summation along hyperbolic travelpaths through the input data space. The hyperbolic summation don’t have to be seen at the first point of view, but it can be indicated by [... |

9 |
Ultra wideband radar systems: advantages and disadvantages
- Immoreeve, Fedotov
- 2002
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ence (rain, mist, aerosols, metalized strips, ...),1.4 M-sequence UWB Radar System 9 decreased detectability by hostile interceptor, availability of low cost transceivers and many others [56], [84], =-=[54]-=-. The first idea to use a very well known M-sequence in UWB radar was proposed in 1996 by Jurgen Sachs from Technical University in Ilmenau and Peter Peyerl from MEODAT GmbH Ilmenau, US patent No. 627... |

9 |
Imaging Through Unknown Walls Using Different Standoff Distances
- Wang, Amin
- 2006
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ect locations, shape, and their constitutive parameters can be reconstructed accurately through the use of multifrequency data with a suitable array aperture size. Genyuan Wang and Moeness G. Amin in =-=[110]-=- in October 2006 presented a technique using two or more standoff distances of the imaging system from the wall for application under wall parameter ambiguities. Two different imaging schemes were app... |

8 |
Weakly closed nonlinear operators and parameter identification in parabolic equations by Tikhonov regularization
- Binder, Engl, et al.
- 1994
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...and in the last time this topic becomes an individual science discipline. In conjunction with radar imaging some of good works can be find in [28] - chapter 7.9, [59] - chapter 6, or [79], [6], [12], =-=[14]-=-, [25]. In this work only basic principle will be introduced. From this point of view, migration can be mean as an approximate solution to the general elastic wavefield inversion problem [46]. Full el... |

8 |
A brief comparison of some Kirchhoff integral formulas for migration and inversion
- Docherty
- 1991
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...s function with an image source above the recording place, that vanished at z = 0 and cancelled the ∂nψ term in (3.19). Wiggins in [111] adapted Schneider’s technique to rough topography. Docherty in =-=[35]-=- showed that a monopole Green’s can also lead to the accepted result and once again challenged Schneider’s argument that the integral over the infinite hemisphere can be neglected. After all, migratio... |

8 |
Surveillance Through Concrete Walls
- Gauthier, Chamma
- 2004
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...signal inside wall is slower than in free space and this will cause the longer flight time. How to correct the velocity changing inside wall is described by Defence Research and Development Canada in =-=[44]-=- and [43]. The time for wave to travel a given distance dinwall inside a wall is given by: tinwall = dinwall vwall (3.3)3.3 Kirchhoff Migration 26 where vwall is the velocity of the signal inside the... |

8 |
The wave equation applied to migration: Geophys
- Loewenthal, Lu, et al.
- 1976
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...o estimate reflectivity, not just the scattered wavefield and for this purpose a model relating the wavefield to the reflectivity is required. The simplest such model is the exploding reflector model =-=[70]-=- which asserts that the reflectivity is identical to the downward3.4 f-k Migration 31 continued scattered wavefield at t = 0 provided that the downward continuation is done with ⃗v = v/2. Thus, an wa... |

8 | Time domain modeling of UWB GPR and its application on landmine detection - Scheers, Acheroy, et al. - 2000 |

7 | High definition vector imaging
- Benitz
- 1997
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...presented Beamspace High Definition Imaging (B-HDI) as an alternative for urban radar sensing applications. B-HDI provides imaging performance similar to that of High Definition Vector Imaging (HDVI) =-=[10]-=- but at a much reduced computational cost. In experiment they used conducting sphere with 12” diameter 3.4m behind 3” thick plywood wall. Background measurement (without sphere) was subtracted from me... |

7 |
Wave fi eld extrapolation techniques in seism.ic l11_igration , a tutorial
- Berkhout
- 1981
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ere geometric approaches. After the introduction of the computer, more complex techniques, based on the scalar wave equation were introduced. A good overview of these techniques is given in [118] and =-=[11]-=-.3.2 SAR Imaging 24 3.2 SAR Imaging In this chapter conventional geometrically based bistatic synthetic aperture radar imaging will be described. Synthetic aperture radar means that antenna system is... |

7 |
Time reversal imaging for sensor networks with optimal compensation in time
- Derveaux, Papanicolaou, et al.
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ften called also back projection [109], [51], [58], [31] [66] or diffraction summation [75], [88], [73], [83], [76]. Moreover this geometrical approach is often incorrectly called Kirchhoff migration =-=[30]-=-, [23], [22] [122], [125]. Though the topic is through wall imaging so at least some wall has to be considered. Because the wall has another permitivity and permeability like free space the wave insid... |

7 |
Extended wavenumber-domain synthetic aperture radar focusing with integrated motion compensation
- Reigber, Alivizatos, et al.
- 2006
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...argets located beyond the transducer focus. 4.5.3 f-k Migration with Motion Compensation f-k migration with integrated motion compensation for airborne measuring was described by A. Reigber et al. in =-=[85]-=- in 2006. In the case of airborne measurements, wavenumber-domain processing is limited because of its inability to perform highprecision motion compensation. Extended Chirp Scaling (ECS) [77] algorit... |

7 |
Synthetic aperture radar processing using fast factorized back-projection
- Ulander, Hellsen, et al.
- 2003
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... ideal approach and this methods produce a lot of artifacts. Conflict in names of basic imaging methods become evident in simple geometrical approach. This method is often called also back projection =-=[109]-=-, [51], [58], [31] [66] or diffraction summation [75], [88], [73], [83], [76]. Moreover this geometrical approach is often incorrectly called Kirchhoff migration [30], [23], [22] [122], [125]. Though ... |

6 |
High-Resolution Imaging using Capon Beamformers for Urban Sensing Applications
- Ahmad, Amin
- 2007
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ith Through Wall Imaging 49 5 Experiments with Through Wall Imaging In this section, I made a short review of latest through wall imaging experiments. 5.1 Review of Experiments Fauzia Ahmad et al. in =-=[3]-=- in January 2005 presented aperture synthesis scheme using subarrays and postdata acquisition beamforming for through-the-wall wideband microwave imaging applications. She mentioned that coherent comb... |

6 |
A multilevel domain decomposition algorithm for fast O(N log N ) reprojection tomographic images
- Boag, Bresler
- 2000
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...all (3.3)3.3 Kirchhoff Migration 26 where vwall is the velocity of the signal inside the wall. The velocity of the electromagnetic signal is related to the wall permitivity and permeability given by =-=[15]-=-: vwall = 1 √ µwallεwall = 1 √ µ0ε0µrwallεrwall = c √ µrwallεrwall (3.4) where c is the speed of light in free space, µwall and εwall are the permeability and permitivity of the wall, µ0 and ε0 are th... |

6 |
Phase distortion correction for see-through-the-wall imaging radar
- Marble, Hero
- 2004
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...mples demonstrating these two methods effectiveness were used. They focused on point targets and assumed single uniform walls. Again only simulated data were used. Jay A. Marble and Alfred O. Hero in =-=[72]-=- in October 2006 concentrated to phase distortion correction for see through wall. The wavenumber 2D focusing algorithm was used. They used two approaches for estimate phase error caused by wall by lo... |

6 |
Numerical Methods of Exploration Seismology with Algorithms in MATLAB,Department of Geology and Geophysics
- Margrave
- 2001
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ict in names of basic imaging methods become evident in simple geometrical approach. This method is often called also back projection [109], [51], [58], [31] [66] or diffraction summation [75], [88], =-=[73]-=-, [83], [76]. Moreover this geometrical approach is often incorrectly called Kirchhoff migration [30], [23], [22] [122], [125]. Though the topic is through wall imaging so at least some wall has to be... |

5 | A fast back-projection algorithm for bistatic SAR imaging
- Ding, Munson
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...doing so introduces an error that degrades the image quality [53]. There were made lot of modifications in fast projection algorithm, like filtered backprojection [8], fast factorised back-projection =-=[34]-=-, [109], quadtree back projection [74], omega-k quadtree back projection [24], etc. However none of these methods has better accuracy like classical back projection, or faster computations like f-k mi... |

5 |
Evaluation of a Processing Technique for Transient Data
- Poggio, Blaricum, et al.
- 1978
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...tivity, permeability and conductivity and include concrete, wood, glass and metal. The simulations used finite difference time domain method and objects behind wall were analyzed using Prony’s method =-=[81]-=-. Prony’s method decomposes the transient signal into a sum of decaying sinusoids. These sinusoids are represented by their poles and residues. Detailed analysis of the poles and residues was then car... |

5 |
R.: UWB localization – active and passive approach
- Zetik, Thome
- 2004
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...mber of chips will increase also correlation gain. On Figure 1.3 spectrum of M-sequence can be seen. UWB radar system with M-sequence generator [87], [123], [29], [93], [90], [92], [94], [120], [91], =-=[121]-=-, [119], [1], [86] is made up from 9 shift registers and 511 chips. From Figure 1.4 can be seen that only 2 feedback connections and one summation are needed. For illustration one period of ideal 511 ... |

4 | An Analysis of 2D Target Positioning Accuracy for M-sequence
- Aftanas, Rovnakova, et al.
- 2007
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...will increase also correlation gain. On Figure 1.3 spectrum of M-sequence can be seen. UWB radar system with M-sequence generator [87], [123], [29], [93], [90], [92], [94], [120], [91], [121], [119], =-=[1]-=-, [86] is made up from 9 shift registers and 511 chips. From Figure 1.4 can be seen that only 2 feedback connections and one summation are needed. For illustration one period of ideal 511 chips length... |

4 |
History of UltraWideBand (UWB
- Barrett
- 2000
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...WideBand) term was at first used in the late 1960’s Harmuth at Catholic University of America, Ross and Robbins at Sperry Rand Corporation and Paul van Etten at the USAF’s Rome Air Development Center =-=[7]-=-. Till the end of 20th century there were lot of radar types for different applications like airborne radars, ground penetrating radars, sonars and one which will be discussed detailed in this paper -... |

4 |
Wave-equation migration with the phase-shift method
- Gazdag
- 1978
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...od is now known to progressively lose accuracy with increasing dip and has lost favor. A technique that can handle this problem more precisely is the phaseshift method of Gazdag and is described here =-=[45]-=-. Unlike the direct f-k migration,3.4 f-k Migration 35 phase shift is a recursive algorithm that process v(z) as a system of constant velocity layers. In the limit when layer thickness is going to be... |